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Anthanassa t. texana (W. H. Edwards, 1863)
(Texan Crescent)

Pinned Specimens
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Pinned Specimens
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Live Adults
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Larval Foodplants and Habitats
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Distribution and Larval Foodplants:

Larval Foodplants
Anthanassa texana texana (W. H. Edwards, 1863)

Acanthaceae: Dicliptera brachiata (Pursh) Spreng., Dicliptera resupinata (Vahl) Juss., Justicia brandegeeana Wasshausen & L.B. Sm., Justicia candicans (Nees) L. Benson, Justicia runyonii  Small, Ruellia drummondiana (Nees) Gray, Ruellia occidentalis (Gray) Tharp & Barkl., Siphonoglossa pilosella (Nees) Torr., Verbesina alternifolia (L.) Britt. ex Kearney


(From: A Catalogue of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada, Jonathan P. Pelham)

Genus Anthanassa Scudder, 1875

Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci. 2(4): 239, 268, no. 54. Type-species: Melitaea texana W. H. Edwards, 1863, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 2(2): 81, no. 5, by designation of I.C.Z.N. Opinion 839; the same Opinion placed Anthanassa on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology as name no. 1780.

=    Tritanassa W. Forbes, 1945

Entomol. Am. (n.s.) 24: 171. Type-species: Eresia drusilla C. Felder & R. Felder, 1861, Wien. Entomol. Montaschr. 5(4): 103-104, no. 79, by original designation.


Anthanassa texana (W. H. Edwards, 1863)


Anthanassa texana texana (W. H. Edwards, 1863)

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 2(2): 78, 81, no. 5.

Original Combination: Melitaea Texana

Type Locality: “Texas”; probable holotype is from “Neu Braunfels, Comal Co., Texas.”

Types: Probable holotype in CMNH, figured by W. Holland (1898), Butt. Book: pl. 18, fig. 9 ♂ V, and F. Brown (1966), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 92(3): fig. 22 ♂ D&V.

I.C.Z.N. Opinion 839 placed this name on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology as name no. 2226.

                   =    smerdis (Hewitson, 1864)

Ill. exot. Butts. 3(50): [21], pl. Eresia V, figs. 33 ♂ D, 34 ♂ V.

Original Combination: Eresia Smerdis

Type Locality: “Mexico”

Types: Lectotype (#Rh8497) in BMNH, designated by Higgins (1981), Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 43(3): 100.


Bailowitz, Richard A. and James P. Brock. 1991. Butterflies of southeastern Arizona. Tucson, Arizona; Sonoran Arthropod Studies, Inc.: ix + 342 pp., 4 pls., figs. {1991} 

Barnes, William and James Halliday McDunnough. 1916. Notes on North American diurnal Lepidoptera. Contributions to the Natural History of the Lepidoptera of North America 3(2): 49-156, 8 pls. {15 Dec 1916} 

Brown, Frederick Martin. 1944. Notes on Mexican Butterflies, IV. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 52(4): 343-360. {[19] Dec 1944}

Brown, Frederick Martin. 1966. The types of the nymphalid butterflies described by William Henry Edwards--Part II, Melitaeinae. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 92(3): 357-468, 34 figs. {Sep, 20 Oct 1966} 

Coquillet, D. W. 1881. Larvae of Lepidoptera. Section II. Transactions of the Illinois Natural History Society 18: 145-146. {1881} 

Davenport, Kenneth E. 2004a. A concise update of the information provided in The Butterflies of southern California (1973) by Thomas C. Emmel and John F. Emmel. Taxonomic Report of the International Lepidoptera Survey 4(7): 1-23 {10 May 2004} 

DeVries, Phillip James. 1987. Butterflies of Costa Rica and their natural history. Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae. Princeton; Princeton Univ. Press: xxii + 327 pp., 50 cpls., 35 figs., 3 tabs., 2 maps. {1987} 

Edwards, William Henry. 1863. Description of certain species of diurnal Lepidoptera found within the limits of the United States and British America, No. 2. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Philadelphia 2[2]: 78-82. {Jul (preprint [early Aug]); paper [12 Oct] 1863} [description of  Melitaea Texana

Edwards, William Henry. 1879. Notes upon the preparatory stages of certain species of butterflies. No. 1. Canadian Entomologist 11(7): 127-131. {[2] Jul 1879} 

Edwards, William Henry. 1884. Notes on butterflies, with directions for breeding them from the egg. Canadian Entomologist, 16(5):81-89. {May 1884} 

Emmel, Thomas Chadbourne and John F. Emmel. 1973b. The butterflies of southern California. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Science Series 26: xi + 148 pp., 10 pls., 77 figs. {30 Nov 1973}

Ferris, Clifford Duras and Frederick Martin Brown. 1981. Butterflies of the Rocky Mountain States. Oklahoma; Univ. Oklahoma Press: 442 pp., 4 cpls., many figures [contributions from Donald Eff, Scott Ellis, Michael Fisher, Lee D. Miller, James Scott and Raymond Stanford] {1981} 

Godman, Frederick du Cane and Osbert Salvin. 1879-1901. Biologia Centrali-Americana. Zoology: Insecta. Lepidoptera-Rhopalocera. London; Taylor & Francis, 3 volumes (Vols. 36-38): 1(Nym., Rio.)(1879-1886); xlv+487 pp.; 2(Pier., Pap., Lyc., Hes.)(1887-1901): 782 pp.; 3(plates): 1-48 (1879-1886); 49-112 (1887-1901) 

Hewitson, William Chapman. 1852-1877. Illustrations of new species of exotic butterflies, selected chiefly from the collections of W. Wilson Saunders and William C. Hewitson. [Exotic Butterflies, being illustrations of new species selected chiefly from the collections of William Wilson Saunders and William C. Hewitson.] London; John Van Voorst, 4to, 5 vols., 100 parts; pages unnumbered; 300 pls. [description of Eresia Gyges, Eresia Smerdis

Hall, Arthur. 1928-1930. A revision of the genus Phyciodes Hubn. (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae). Bulletin of the Hill Museum 2(2)(supplement 1): 1-20, pls. 1-3 {18 Jun 1928} 2(3)(supplement): 21-44 {17 Nov 1928}; 3(1)(supplement): 45-94 {30 Apr 1929}; 3(2)(supplement): 95-146 {29 Aug 1929}; 3(3)(supplement): 147-170 {30 Dec 1929}; 4(1)(supplement): 171-204 {28 Jul 1930}; 4(2)(supplement): 205-206; add. Page {29 Dec 1930} 

Higgins, Lionel George. 1981. A revision of Phyciodes Hübner and related genera, with a review of the classification of the Melitaeinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) (Entomology) 43(3): 77-243, 490 figs. {29 Oct 1981} 

Hoffmann, Carlos Christian. 1940. Catálogo systemático y zoogeográphico de los Lepidópteros Mexicanos, Primera parte. Papilionoidea. Anales del Instituto de Biología. Universidad Nacional de México 11(2): 639-739, 2 maps. {[after 28 Dec] 1940} 

Holland, William Jacob. 1931. The butterfly book. New and thoroughly revised edition.  A popular and scientific manual, describing and depicting all the butterflies of the United States and Canada. Garden City, New York; Doubleday, Doran & Co.  xii + 424 pp., 77 pls., 198 + [1] text figures. {1931}

Kendall, Roy O=Neal. 1960. More larval foodplants from Texas. Journal of the Lepidopterists= Society 13(4): 221-228 {1959, 1 Aug 1960} 

Kendall, Roy O=Neal. 1964. Larval foodplants for twenty-six species of Rhopalocera (Papilionodiea) from Texas. Journal of the Lepidopterists= Society 18(3): 129-157 2 Nov 1964} 

Maza, Roberto F. de la. 1987. Mariposas Mexicanas. Guía para su colecta y determinación. México; Fondo de Cultura Económica: 304 pp., 67 pls., 58 figs. {Oct 1987} [Ed. 2 1991]

Röber, Johannes Karl Max 1913-1914. Gattung Phyciodes. In: A. Seitz (Ed.), Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde 5(162): pl. 92 {5 Jun 1913}; (183): 434-440, pl. 90 {10 Dec 1913}; (188): 449-450, pls. 88, 89. {[before 10 Feb] 1914}; (189): pl. 91. {14 Apr 1914} 

Vargas, Isabel, Moisés Armando Luis, Jorge Enrique Llorente and Andrew D. Warren. 1996. Butterflies of the State of Jalisco, Mexico. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 50(2): 97-138, 1 fig., 2 tabs. {5 July 1996}

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