Main Introduction Page Electronic Reference Library Know-how Glossary of acronyms and other terms used on this website A Catalog of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada Illustrated Checklist of Neotropical Butterflies Support the Butterflies of America Foundation Interactive Listing of American Butterflies Photographer Credits Learn about contributing your photos Citation for this website Contact us
Papilionidae (Swallowtails)Pieridae (Whites and Sulphurs)Lycaenidae (Gossamerwings)Riodinidae (Metalmarks)Nymphalidae (Brushfoots)Hesperiidae (Skippers)Links to external lepidoptera websites
Loading

Chlosyne gorgone carlota (Reakirt, 1866)
(Gorgone Checkerspot)

Type Specimens photo collection:

Pinned Specimens photo collection:

Aberrations photo collection:

Live Adults photo collection:

Distribution and Larval Foodplants:
 

Asteraceae: Ambrosia trifida L., Aster  L. sp.,  Aster lanceolatus Willd., Helianthus L. sp., Helianthus annuus L. Helianthus decapetalus L., Helianthus X laetiflorus Pers. (pro sp.),  Helianthus pauciflorus Nutt., Helianthus petiolaris Nutt., Helianthus pumilus Nutt., Iva xanthifolia Nutt., Heliomeris multiflora var. multiflora Nutt., Rudbeckia hirta var. pulcherrima Farw., Symphyotrichum novae‑angliae  (L.) Nesom, Xanthium strumarium var. canadense (P. Mill.) Torr. & Gray 

Primulaceae: Lysimachia L. 

Scrophulariaceae: Linaria vulgaris P. Mill. 

Verbenaceae: Phyla lanceolata (Michx.) Greene, Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene

Synonymy

(From: A Catalogue of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada, Jonathan P. Pelham)

Genus Chlosyne Butler, 1870

Cist. Entomol. 1(3): 38, no. 37. Type-species: Papilio janais Drury, 1782, Ill. Nat. Hist., 3: 22, index, pl. 17, figs. 5, 6, as replacement name. Proposed to replace Synchloe E. Doubleday, 1844, preoccupied (Code Articles 60.3, 67.8). The synonymy for this genus follows Wahlberg and Zimmerman (2000), Cladistics 16(4): 347-363.

      =    ‡Morpheis Geyer, [1833]

In: Hübner, Samml. exot. Schmett. 3: pl [5], figs. 1-4. Type-species: Morpheis ehrenbergii Geyer, [1833], in: Hübner, Samml. exot. Schmett., 3: pl [5], figs. 1-4, by monotypy. Preoccupied by Morpheis Hübner, [1820], Verz. bekannt. Schmett., 13: 196.

      =    ‡Synchloe E. Doubleday, [1845]

List Spec. Lepid. Brit. Mus. 1: 76. Type-species: Papilio janais Drury, 1782, Ill. Nat. Hist. 3: 22, index, pl. 17, figs. 5, 6, by designation of Scudder (1875), Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., Boston 10(2): 141, no. 253. Preoccupied by Synchloe Hübner, 1818, Zutr. Samml. exot. Schmett. 1: 26.

      =    ‡Coatlantona W. F. Kirby, 1871

Syn. Cat. diurn. Lepid.: 178. Type-species: Papilio janais Drury, 1782, Ill. Nat. Hist. 3: 22, index, pl. 17, figs. 5, 6, as replacement name. Proposed to replace Synchloe E. Doubleday, 1844, preoccupied (Code Articles 60.3, 67.8). A junior objective synonym of Chlosyne Butler, 1870.

=    Anemeca W. F. Kirby, 1871

Syn. Cat. diurn. Lepid.: 179. Type-species: Morpheis ehrenbergii Geyer, [1833], in: Hübner, Samml. exot. Schmett. 3: pl [5], figs. 1-4, as replacement name. Proposed to replace Morpheis Geyer, [1833], in: Hübner, Samml. exot. Schmett. 3: pl [5], figs. 1-4, preoccupied (Code Articles 60.3, 67.8).

=    Charidryas Scudder, 1872

4th Ann. Rept. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 47. Type-species: Melitaea nycteis E. Doubleday, 1847, in: Gen. diurn. Lepid. (1)(12): pl. 23, fig. 3; (21): 181, no. 23 (1848), by original designation.

      =    ‡Limnaecia Scudder, 1872

4th Ann. Rept. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 47. Type-species: Melitaea harrisii Scudder, 1863, Proc. Essex Inst. 3: 167-168, no. 36, by original designation. Preoccupied by Limnaecia Stainton, 1851, Suppl. Cat. Brit. Pteroph.: 4.

=    Thessalia Scudder, 1875

Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci. 2(4): 238, 265, no. 49. Type-species: Melitaea leanira C. Felder & R. Felder, 1860, Wien. Entomol. Montaschr. 4(4): 106, no. 64, by original designation.

 

Chlosyne gorgone (Hübner, [1810])

Samml. exot. Schmett. 1: pl. [41], figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V (not figs. 3, 4).

Original Combination: Dryas reticulata Gorgone

Type Locality: Not stated; suggested to be “Burke Co., in southern Georgia” by W. Forbes (1960), Mem. Cornell Univ. Agric. exp. Sta. 371 (part 4): 156; neotype from “Burke Co., GA, River Road.”

Types: Type(s) probably lost. Neotype in MGCL, designated by Gatrelle (1998), Tax. Rep. Int. Lepid. Surv. 1(2): 5, fig. 2 ♂ D&V.

 

Chlosyne gorgone carlota (Reakirt, 1866)

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 6(1): 141.

Original Combination: Eresia Carlota

Type Locality: “Rocky Mountains, Colorado Territory”; suggested to be “Illinois, Missouri” by W. H. Edwards (1861) Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 13(6): 161, no. 3; neotype from “Cedar Hill/Jeff[erson] Co., Mo.” [Missouri]

Types: Neotype in MGCL, designated by F. Brown (1974), Bull. Allyn Mus. (16): 4, fig. ♂ D&V.

This name was proposed for Melitaea nycteis (sensu W. H. Edwards (1861), Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 13(6): 161, no. 3).

                         =    ‡ismeria (Boisduval & Le Conte, [1835])

Hist. Lépid. Amér. sept.(19): 168-169; (16): pl. 46, figs. 1 ♀ D, 2 ♀ V, 3 larva, 4 pupa.

Original Combination: M[elitaea]. Ismeria

Type Locality: “Caroline et la Géorgie”

Types: Described, at least in part, from a John Abbot drawing; the specimens upon which this drawing was based are presumed lost. Gatrelle (1998), Tax. Rep. Int. Lepid. Surv. 1(2): 1-8, and Gatrelle (2003), Tax. Rep. Int. Lepid. Surv. 4(4): 1-9, claimed to have rediscovered this taxon, believed it conspecific with Chlosyne nycteis (E. Doubleday, [1847]), and treated it as the senior synonym of that name. He also designated a neotype of ismeria; it is a specimen of C. nycteis.

This taxon was suppressed by I.C.Z.N. Opinion 2160. For details on this synonymy, see Calhoun (2003), J. Lepid. Soc. 57(3): 204-219, (2004), J. Lepid. Soc. 58(3): 143-168, (2005), J. Lepid. Soc. 59(3): 172-173, and Calhoun et al. (2005), Bull. Zool. Nomen. 62(2): 79-83.

                         =    ‡”nigra” (M. Cary, 1901)

Can. Entomol. 33(11): 307-308.

Original Combination: Phyciodes ismeria, ab. nigra

Type Locality: “bottom of Monroe Canon” [Sioux County, Nebraska]

Types: Location of “holotype” not known.

Bibliography

Boisduval, Jean Baptiste Alphonse d'Echauffour and John Eatton Le Conte. 1829-[1837]. Histoire générale et iconographie des Lépidoptères et des Chenilles de l'Amerique septentrionale. Paris, Roret, 8vo: iv + 228 pp.; 78 pls. {1829-1837} [description of Melitaea Ismeria

Brown, Frederick Martin. 1957. Colorado butterflies [Assisted by Donald Eff and Bernard Rotger.] Denver, Denver Museum Natural History: vii + 368 pp.; 314 unnumbered figs. {1957} 

Brown, Frederick Martin. 1974. The butterfly called ismeria by Boisduval and LeConte. Bulletin of the Allyn Museum (16): 12 pp., 4 figs. {12 Apr 1974} 

Cary, Merritt. 1901. Notes on the butterflies of Sioux County, Nebraska. Canadian Entomologist 33(11): 305-311. {[8] Nov 1901} [description of Phyciodes ismeria, aber. nigra

Catling, Paul M. and Ross A. Layberry. 1998. Distribution and biology of Chlosyne gorgone carlota at its northeastern limit. Journal of the Lepidopterists= Society 52(1): 98-104, 1 fig. {15 June 1998} 

Dyar, Harrison G. 1893. On some butterfly larvae not hitherto described. Canadian Entomologist 25(4): 93-94. {Apr 1893} 

Edwards, William Henry. 1861. Descriptions of certain species of diurnal Lepidoptera found within the limits of the United States and British America. Proceedings of the Academy of natural Sciences of Philadelphia 13[6]: 160-164. {Jul (pre-print [Aug]); paper [27 Dec] 1861} 

Edwards, William Henry. 1894. Description of the preparatory stages of Phyciodes Carlota, Reakirt (Charidryas ismeria Scudder). Canadian Entomologist 26(1): 3-8. {Jan 1894} 

Ferris, Clifford Duras and Frederick Martin Brown. 1981. Butterflies of the Rocky Mountain States. Oklahoma; Univ. Oklahoma Press: 442 pp., 4 cpls., many figures [contributions from Donald Eff, Scott Ellis, Michael Fisher, Lee D. Miller, James Scott and Raymond Stanford] {1981} 

Fisher, Michael S. 2006. The butterflies of Colorado. Nymphalidae ‑ Part 3. The subfamily Nymphalinae and relatives. The checkerspots, crescentspots and the true nymphs. Fort Collins; Lepidoptera of North America 7.3; Contributions of the C. P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, Colorado State University: vi + 120 pp., photos {30 Sep 2006} 

Forbes, William Trowbridge Merrifield. 1945. The genus Phyciodes (Lepidoptera, Nymphalinae). Entomologica Americana (n.s.)24: 139-207 {Oct 1944, 24 May 1945}

Gatrelle, Ronald R. 1998. The rediscovery, taxonomy, and biology of Chlosyne gorgone gorgone and Chlosyne ismeria (Nymphalidae) in Burke County, Georgia. The Taxonomic Report of the International Lepidoptera Survey 1(2): 1-8, 7 figs. {1 Nov 1998} 

Handford, R. H. 1933. Note on the hibernation of Phyciodes gorgone, Hbn. (lepidoptera, Nymphalidae). Canadian Entomologist 65(4): 95. {Apr 1933} 

Higgins, Lionel George. 1960. A revision of the melitaeine genus Chlosyne and allied species (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 112(14): 381-467, 134 figs. {31 Dec 1960} 

Kendall, Roy O=Neal. 1964. Larval foodplants for twenty-six species of Rhopalocera (Papilionodiea) from Texas. Journal of the Lepidopterists= Society 18(3): 129-157 2 Nov 1964} 

Layberry, Ross A., Peter W. Hall, J. Donald Lafontaine (plates by John T. Fowler). 1998. The butterflies of Canada. Toronto, Buffalo & London; University of Toronto Press: 280 pp., 32 pls., 294 maps and illus. {1998} 

Iftner, David C. 1983. A new food plant record for Chlosyne gorgone carlota (Reakirt) (Nymphalidae). Journal of the Lepidopterists= Society 37(1): 80-81. {19 Aug 1983} 

Reakirt, Tryon. 1866. Coloradian butterflies. Proceedings of the entomological Society of Philadelphia 6[1]: 122-151; fig. 1, pl. 1 {Jun 1866} [description of Eresia Carlota

Röber, Johannes Karl Max 1913-1914. Gattung Phyciodes. In: A. Seitz (Ed.), Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde 5(162): pl. 92 {5 Jun 1913}; (183): 434-440, pl. 90 {10 Dec 1913}; (188): 449-450, pls. 88, 89. {[before 10 Feb] 1914}; (189): pl. 91. {14 Apr 1914} 

Scott, James A. 1992. Hostplant records for butterflies and skippers (mostly from Colorado) 1959-1991, with new life histories and notes on oviposition, immatures, and ecology. Papilio (n.s.) 6: 1-171, 10 tables {5 Jul 1992} 

Scott, James A. 2006. Butterfly hostplant records, 1992-2005, with a treatise on the evolution of Erynnis, and a note on new terminology for mate-locating behavior. Papilio (New Series) 14: 74 pp., cartoon {28 Apr 2006} 

Scudder, Samuel Hubbard. 1872. Abbot's [sic] notes on Georgian butterflies. Canadian Entomology 4(4): 73-77 {Sep 1872}; (5): 84-87 {May 1872} 

Scudder, Samuel Hubbard. 1888-1889. The Butterflies of the eastern United States and Canada with Special Reference to New England. Cambridge; Samuel Hubbard Scudder, 1(introduction, Nymphalidae): xxiv +  766 pp., frtspc. (colored); 2(Lycaenidae, Papilionidae, Hesperiidae): xii + 767-1774, frtspc. (colored), 1 map; 3(appendix, plates): i-viii, 1775-1958, frtspc., pls. 1-89 (14 colored), 3 maps {[Nov 1888], [1Apr] 1889}

Top of PageMain PageReference Library Literature ListCitationInteractive Listing

This website is supported by Butterflies of America Foundation, a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) tax-deductible nonprofit 170(b)(1)(A)(vi) public charity.