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Glaucopsyche lygdamus xerces (Boisduval, 1852) †
(Xerces Blue)

Type Specimens photo collection:


 

Pinned Specimens photo collection Page 1:

Pinned Specimens photo collection Page 2:

Aberrations photo collection:

Distribution and Larval Foodplants:
 

 

Synonymy

(From: A Catalogue of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada, Jonathan P. Pelham)

  Genus Glaucopsyche Scudder, 1872

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 54. Type-species: Polyommatus lygdamus E. Doubleday, 1841, Entomol. 1(14): 209-210, by original designation.

=    Phaedrotes Scudder, 1876

Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci. 3: 115-116, no. 20. Type-species: Lycaena catalina Reakirt, 1866, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 18(3): 244, no. 16 (= Lycaena sagittigera C. Felder & R. Felder, 1865, Reise Novara (2): 281-282, no. 357, pl. 35, figs. 20, 21: a subspecies of Lycaena piasus Boisduval, 1852, Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (2)10(2): 299, no. 37), by original designation. F. Brown (1971), J. Lepid. Soc. 25(4): 240-246, determined this synonymy.

=    Apelles Hemming, 1931

Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 79(2): 323-324. Type-species: Polyommatus melanops Boisduval, [1828], Europ. Lepid. Ind. Meth.: 13, by original designation.

=    Bajluana Korshunov & Ivonin, 1990

Nov. Maloizvest. Vid. Faun. Sib. 22: 69. Type-species: Lycaena argali Elwes, 1899, Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (4)1899(3): 328, 329, by original designation.

 

Glaucopsyche lygdamus (E. Doubleday, 1841)

Entomol. 1(14): 209-210.

Original Combination: Polyommatus Lygdamus

Type Locality: “pine forests of North America, especially Georgia” A. Clark (1948), Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 50(7): 176, suggested that the original specimens were collected by John Abbot in the “vicinity of his home at Jacksonboro, Screven Co., Georgia”; Klots (1951), Field Guide Butts. N. Am.: 168, stated “Screven Co., Georgia.” Drawings by John Abbot in the Natural History Museum in London indicate that he encountered this species long before his brief residence in Screven County, so Burke County, Georgia, is a more likely locality (Calhoun pers. comm. 2006).

Types: Holotype is lost or unrecognizable, not in BMNH or UMO.

=    nittanyensis F. Chermock, 1945

Can. Entomol. 76(11): 216.

Original Combination: Glaucopsyche lygdamus nittanyensis

Type Locality: “Bear Meadows, near State College, Pa.” [Centre County, Pennsylvania]

Types: Holotype in CMNH.

=    boydi A. Clark, 1948

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 50(7): 176-177.

Original Combination: Glaucopsyche lygdamus boydi

Type Locality: “Ice Mountain, Hampshire Co., West Virginia”

Types: Holotype (#58715) in USNM; figured by A. Clark (1940), Expl. Field Work Smithson. Inst. 1939: fig. 70, left ♂ D, middle ♂ V (holotype), right ♀ V.

 

Glaucopsyche lygdamus xerces (Boisduval, 1852) ✝

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (2)10(2): 296, no. 31; figured by Oberthür (1913), Étud. Lépid. Comp. 9(1): pl. 237, figs. 1939 ♂ D&V, 1940 ♀ D&V.

Original Combination: Lycaena Xerces

Type Locality: “Californie” implied from the title of the paper; defined as “San Francisco, San Francisco County, California” by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (2): 13.

Types: Lectotype in USNM, designated by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (2): 13, figs. 57 ♂ D, 58 ♂ V.

Scott (1986), Butts. N. Am.: 399, no. 395, treated this as a subspecies of G. lygdamus, an arrangement followed by various subsequent authors.

=    antiacis (Boisduval, 1852)

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (2)10(2): 300, no. 39; figured by Oberthür (1913), Étud. Lépid. Comp. 9(1): pl. 237, fig. 1951 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Lycaena Antiacis

Type Locality: “Environs de San Francisco”; defined as “San Francisco, San Francisco County, California” by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (2): 16.

Types: Lectotype in USNM, designated by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (2): 16, figs. 84 ♂ D, 85 ♂ V.

=    behrii (W. H. Edwards, 1862)

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 14(5): 224, no. 6.

Original Combination: Lycaena Behrii

Type Locality: “California”; defined as “vic. San Francisco, California” by F. Brown (1970), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 96(3): 415. [San Francisco County]

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown (1970), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 96(3): 417, fig. 27 ♂ D&V.

=    mertila (W. H. Edwards, 1866)

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 6(2): 206, no. 5.

Original Combination: Lycaena Mertila

Type Locality: “California”; defined as “vic. San Francisco, California” by F. Brown (1970), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 96(3): 418. [San Francisco County]

Types: Holotype in CMNH; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butt. Book (rev. ed.): pl. 65, fig. 43 ♀ D, and F. Brown (1970), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 96(3): fig. 28 ♀ D&V.

=    polyphemus (Boisduval, 1869)

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 12: 49, no. 29; figured by Oberthür (1913), Étud. Lépid. Comp. 9(1): pl. 239, fig. 2071 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Lycaena Polyphemus

Type Locality: “Californie” implied from the title of the paper; defined as “San Francisco, San Francisco County, California”; by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (2): 29.

Types: Lectotype in USNM, designated by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (2): 29, figs. 210 ♂ D, 211 ♂ V.

=    ‡”huguenini” Gunder, 1925

Entomol. News 36(1): 3, no. 4, pl. 1, fig. O ♂ V (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Glaucopsyche xerces form mertila ab. ♂ huguenini

Type Locality: “San Francisco, California” [San Francisco County]

Types: “Holotype” in LACM.

=    ‡”barnesi” Gunder, 1927

Can. Entomol. 59(12): 282, no. 2, pl. A, figs. 2 ♂ V (“holotype”), 2a ♀ V.

Original Combination: Glaucopsyche xerces form mertila tr. f. barnesi

Type Locality: “San Francisco, Calif.” [San Francisco County, California]

Types: “Holotype” in USNM.

=    ‡”intermedia” F. Chermock, 1929

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 24(1): 20.

Original Combination: Glaucopsyche xerces var. intermedia

Type Locality: “Lone Mountain, San Francisco, Calif.” [San Francisco County, California]

Types: “Holotype” in MGCL.

Bibliography

 

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