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Hamadryas februa ferentina (Godart, [1824])
(Gray Cracker)

Pinned Specimens photo collection:

Live Adults photo collection Page 1:

Live Adults photo collection Page 2:

Immatures photo collection:

Distribution and Larval Foodplants:
 

S TX, E & S Mexico to Brazil

Synonymy

(From: A Catalogue of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada, Jonathan P. Pelham)


Genus Hamadryas Hübner, [1806]

Samml. exot. Schmett. 1: pl. [47]. Type-species: Papilio amphinome Linnaeus, 1767, Syst. Nat. (ed. 12) 1(2): 779-780, no. 176, by monotypy.

      =    ‡Apatura [Illiger], [1807]

Allg. Lit.-Zeit. 2(303): 1181. Type-species: Papilio amphinome Linnaeus, 1767, Syst. Nat. (ed. 12) 1(2): 779-780, no. 176, by monotypy. I.C.Z.N. Opinion 232 suppressed this name and placed on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology as name no. 37.

=    Ageronia Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (3): 42. Type-species: Papilio chloe Stoll, 1787, Aanhangs. Werk Uitl. Kapellen Pieter Cramer (1): 22, pl. 5, figs. 1, 1a; (3): 182 (index), by designation of Scudder (1875), Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., Boston 10(2): 104-105, no. 34.

      =    ‡Philocala Billberg, 1820

Enum. Ins. Mus. Billb.: 79. Type-species: Papilio amphinome Linnaeus, 1767, Syst. Nat. (ed. 12) 1(2): 779-780, no. 176, by designation of Scudder (1875), Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., Boston 10(2): 248, no. 851. A junior objective synonym of Hamadryas.

=    Peridromia Lacordaire, 1833

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. [1]2: 392. Type-species: Papilio arethusa Cramer, 1775, Uitl. Kapellen 1(7): 122-123, pl. 77, figs. E, F; (8): 151 (index) (= Papilio laodamia Cramer, 1777, Uitl. Kapellen 2(11): 49, pl. 130, fig. A; (16): 149 (index); homonym), by designation of Lamas (1980), J. Lepid. Soc. 34(2): 85.

      =    ‡Peridromia Boisduval, [1836]

Spec. gén. Lépid. 1: pl. 23 [= 7C], fig. 5. Type-species: Papilio arethusa Cramer, 1775, Uitl. Kapellen 1(7): 122, pl. 77, figs. E, F; (8): 151 (index) (= Papilio laodamia Cramer, 1777, Uitl. Kapellen 2(11): 49, pl. 130, fig. A; (16): 149 (index); homonym), by monotypy. Preoccupied by Peridromia Lacordaire, 1833, Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. [1]2: 392.

=    Amphichlora C. Felder, 1861

Nova Acta Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. germ. Nat. Cur. 28(3): 19, under Ageronia, no. 37. Type-species: Papilio feronia Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 473, no. 95, by designation of Scudder (1875), Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., Boston 10(2): 109-110, no. 63.

 

Hamadryas februa (Hübner, [1823])

Samml. exot. Schmett. 2: pl. [41], figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V.

Original Combination: Ageronia Februa

Type Locality: Not stated; listed as “Amer. Mer. Et Centr., Mexico” by W. F. Kirby (1908), in: P. Wytsman, Facsimile ed. Hübner Samml. exot. Schmett. 3(addit. notes): 31; suggested to be “Amazonas gebiet oder dem nördlichen Theil von Brasilien” by Fruhstorfer (1916), in: Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 5(206): 539.

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

            =    atinia ([Fruhstorfer], 1914)

In: Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 5(192): pl. 105c, fig. [3] ♂ D (1914); (206): 540 (1916) (as Ageronia februa atinia).

Original Combination: [Ageronia februa] atinia

Type Locality: “süd brasilianische...Amazonasgebietes...Rio Grande do Sul und Sta. Catharina”

Types: Syntypes (15-108) in BMNH; figured by Jenkins (1983), Bull. Allyn Mus. (81): 22, figs. 5 ♂ D, 6 ♂ V, 7 ♀ D, 8 ♀ V.

Fruhstorfer is considered the author of the name, as given on the plate.

            =    sabatia (Fruhstorfer, 1916)

In: Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 5(206): 540.

Original Combination: [Ageronia februa] sabatia

Type Locality: “Mato Grosso, Cuiabá” [Brazil]

Types: Syntypes in BMNH.

            =    sellasia (Fruhstorfer, 1916)

In: Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 5(206): 540.

Original Combination: [Ageronia februa] sellasia

Type Locality: “Paraguay”

Types: Syntypes in BMNH.

‡”maina” Talbot, [1923]

Fruhstorfer Colln.: 54.

Original Combination: Ageronia ferox maina

Proposed without description or indication; a nomen nudum.

 

Hamadryas februa ferentina (Godart, [1824])

Enc. méth. 9(Ins.)(2): 428, no. 248; cited Papilio feronia Stoll (1781), Uitl. Kapellen 4(31): 140, pl. 362, figs. A ♂ D, B ♂ V; (34): 249 (index).

Original Combination: Nymphalis Ferentina

Type Locality: “Indes Orientales” in error.

Types: Location of type(s) not known.

Proposed for the figures in Stoll (1781), from “Indes Orientales.”

                   =    gudula ([Fruhstorfer], 1914)

In: Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 5(192): pl. 105d, fig. [4] ♂ D (1914); (206): 539 (1916) (as Ageronia februa gudula).

Original Combination: [Ageronia februa] gudula

Type Locality: “westliche Mexico”; a syntype from “Texas.”

Types: Syntype in BMNH; figured in Jenkins (1983), Bull. Allyn Mus. (81): 24, figs. 11 ♀ D, 12 ♀ V.

Fruhstorfer is considered the author of the name, as given on the plate.

                   =    sodalia (Fruhstorfer, 1916)

In: Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 5(206): 540.

Original Combination: [Ageronia februa] sodalia form nov.

Type Locality: “östlichen und südlichen Mexiko”

Types: Syntype in BMNH.

                   =    hierone (Fruhstorfer, 1916)

In: Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 5(206): 540.

Original Combination: [Ageronia februa] hierone

Type Locality: “Halbinsel Yucatan” [Mexico]

Types: Location of type(s) not known.

                   =    fundania (Fruhstorfer, 1916)

In: Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 5(206): 540.

Original Combination: [Ageronia februa] fundania

Type Locality: “Honduras”; further defined as “San Pedro Sula” by Jenkins (1983), Bull. Allyn Mus. (81): 24.

Types: Syntype in BMNH; figured by Jenkins (1983), Bull. Allyn Mus. (81): 24, figs. 9 ♂ D, 10 ♂ V.

                   =    icilia (Fruhstorfer, 1916)

In: Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 5(206): 540.

Original Combination: [Ageronia februa] icilia

Type Locality: “Trinidad”; defined as “Trinidad, Belmont” by Jenkins (1983), Bull. Allyn Mus. (81): 24.

Types: Syntype in BMNH.

Bibliography

 

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