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Limenitis arthemis astyanax (Fabricius, 1775)
(Red-Spotted Purple)

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Distribution and Larval Foodplants:
 

 

Synonymy

(From: A Catalogue of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada, Jonathan P. Pelham)

Genus Limenitis [Fabricius], 1807

In: Illiger, Mag. f. Insektenk. 6: 281, no. 10. Type-species: Papilio populi Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 476, no. 111, by designation of Dalman (1816), K. svenska VetenskAkad. Handl. 37(1): 55. I.C.Z.N. Opinion 278 placed this name on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology as name no. 701. R. Chermock (1950), Am. Midl. Nat. 43(3): 513-569, united many genus-level taxa under Limenitis, some of which have since been elevated. The use of Basilarchia for Nearctic species is not warranted until a thorough analysis of all related taxa has been conducted.

      =    ‡Najas Hübner, [1806]

Tentamen: [1]. Type-species: Papilio populi Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 476, no. 111, by monotypy. I.C.Z.N. Opinion 97 suppressed this publication. I.C.Z.N. Opinion 278 placed this name on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology as name no. 80.

      =    ‡Callianira Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (3): 38. Type-species: Callianira ephestiaena Hübner, [1819], Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (3): 38, no. 334 (= Papilio ephestion Stoll, 1790, Aanhangs. Werk Uitl. Kapellen Pieter Cramer (2): 121, pl. 25, figs. 1A ♂ D, 1B ♂ V; (3): 183 (index); a synonym of Papilio astyanax, Fabricius, 1775, Syst. Entomol.: 447, no. 20, which is a subspecies of Papilio arthemis Drury, 1773, Ill. Nat. Hist. 2: 17, index, pl. 10, figs. 3, 4), by monotypy. Preoccupied by Callianira Péon & Lesueur, 1810, Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris 15(85): 65.

      =    ‡Nymphalis Boisduval, [1828]

Europ. Lepid. Ind. Meth.: 14. Type-species: Papilio populi Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 476, no. 111, by monotypy. Preoccupied by Nymphalis Kluk, 1780, Zwierz. Hist. Nat. Pocz. Gospod. 4: 86.

      =    ‡Nympha Krause, 1839

In: Thon, Faun. Thüringen 4(4/5): 86. Type-species: Papilio populi Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 476, no. 111, by designation of Scudder (1872), Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., Boston 10(2): 293, no. 755 bis. Preoccupied by Nympha Fitzinger, 1826, Nouv. Class. Rept. 29, and a junior objective synonym of Limenitis.

      =    ‡Nymphalis (C. Felder, 1861)

Nova Acta Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. germ. Nat. Cur. 28(3): 41, no. 97. Type-species: Papilio astyanax Fabricius, 1775, Syst. Entomol.: 447, no. 20 (= Papilio arthemis Drury, 1773, Ill. Nat. Hist. 2: 17, index, pl. 10, figs. 3, 4; subspecies), by designation of Hemming (1934), Entomol. 67(849): 37. Preoccupied by Nymphalis Kluk, 1780, Zwierz. Hist. Nat. Pocz. Gospod. 4: 86, and also a junior objective synonym of Basilarchia Scudder, 1872.

=    Basilarchia Scudder, 1872

4th Ann. Rept. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 29. Type-species: Papilio astyanax Fabricius, 1775, Syst. Entomol.: 447, no. 20 (= Papilio arthemis Drury, 1773, Ill. Nat. Hist. 2: 17, index, pl. 10, figs. 3, 4; subspecies), by original designation.

=    Ladoga Moore, 1898

Lepid. Ind. 3(32): 146; (33): 174. Type-species: Papilio camilla Linnaeus, 1764, Mus. Lud. Ulr.: 304, no. 122, by original designation.

=    Azuritis Boudinot, 1986

Nouv. Rev. Entomol. (n.s.) 2(4): 405. Type-species: Limenitis reducta Staudinger, 1901, Cat. Lepid. Palae. (3rd ed.): 22, no. 135a, by original designation. Gorbunov (2001), Butts. Russia Class.: 159, treated this taxon as a subgenus.

 

Limenitis arthemis (Drury, 1773)

Ill. Nat. Hist. 2: 17, index, pl. 10, figs. 3 ♂ D, 4 ♂ V.

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Nym[phalis]. Phal[eratus]. Arthemis

Type Locality: “New York”; stated to be “New York, probably Catskill Mountains” by Klots (1951), Field Guide Butts. N. Am.: 116.

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

=    lamina (Fabricius, 1793)

Entomol. Syst. 3(1): 118, no. 361; cited Jones’ Icones 5: pl. 32, fig. 1.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. N[ymphales]. Lamina

Type locality: “Indiis”

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

=    proserpina W. H. Edwards, 1865

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 5(1): 148; figured by W. H. Edwards (1867), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 1(3): pl. 5, (1869), Butts. N. Am. [1](4): pl. Limenitis 1, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V, 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V, and (1879), 2(8): pl. Limenitis 1, figs. 5 ♂ D, 6 ♂ D.

Original Combination: Limenitis Proserpina

Type Locality: “Catskill Mountains”; defined as “Hunter, Greene Co., New York” by F. Brown (1967), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 93(3): 358.

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown (1967), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 93(3): 360, fig. 12 ♂ D&V.

=    ‡”rufescens” Cockerell, 1889

Entomol. 22(308): 4; cited unspecified Maynard reference, probably (1886), Butts. N. England (ed. 1): pl. 1, fig. 11 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: L[imenitis]. arthemis [form]. rufescens

Type Locality: “Southern States”

Types: “Holotype” probably in MCZ, if it existed.

=    ‡”cerulea” Ehrmann, 1900

Can. Entomol. 32(11): 348.

Original Combination: Limenitis ursula, Var. cerulea ♀, nov. var.

Type Locality: “Charleroi, Penn’a” [Washington County, Pennsylvania]

Types: “Syntypes” in CMNH.

=    ‡”albofasciata” Newcomb, 1907

Psyche 14(5): 90-91, pl. 2, figs. 7 ♂ D, 8 ♀ D.

Original Combination: Limenitis ursula var. albofasciata

Type Locality: “Mass., eastern N. Y., and vicinity of Jersey City”; lectotype from “Fort Lee, Hudson Co., N. Y.” [New York]

Types: “Syntypes” in AMNH.

=    ‡”benjamini” Nakahara, 1924

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 19(5): 171.

Original Combination: [Basilarchia arthemis albofasciata] Aberr. benjamini

Type Locality: “Massachusetts”

Types: “Holotype” in USNM.

=    ”virithemis” W. D. Field, 1936

J. Entomol. & Zool. 28(2): 24.

Original Combination: Basilarchia Arthemis f. virithemis

Type Locality: “Germania, Penn.” [Potter County, Pennsylvania]

Types: “Holotype” in USNM.

 

Limenitis arthemis astyanax (Fabricius, 1775)

Syst. Entomol.: 447, no. 20.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. E[ques]. T[rojanus]. Astyanax

Type Locality: “America”

Types: Syntypes in HMUG.

                   =    ephestion (Stoll, 1790)

Aanhangs. Werk Uitl. Kapellen Pieter Cramer (2): 121, pl. 25, figs. 1A ♂ D, 1B ♂ V; (3): 183 (index).

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Eq[uites]. Troës Ephestion

Type Locality: “gouldkust van Afrika” “côte d’or d’Afrique” in error.

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

                         =    ‡ephestiaena (Hübner, [1819])

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (3): 38, no. 334; cited Papilio ephestion Stoll 1790, Aanhangs. Werkes Uitl. Kapellen Pieter Cramer (2): pl. 25, figs. 1A, 1B; (3): 183 (index).

Original Combination: Callianira Ephestiaena

Proposed to replace Papilio ephestion Stoll, 1790, erroneously thought preoccupied; a junior objective synonym of Papilio ephestion.

                   =    ursula (Fabricius, 1793)

Entomol. Syst. 3(1): 82, no. 257.

Original combination: P[apilio]. N[ymphalis] Ursula

Type locality: “America”

Types: Location of type(s) not known.

                         =    ‡”viridis” Strecker, 1878

Butts. & Moths N. Am., Comp. Syn. Cat.: 144, no. 289a.

Original Combination: [Limenitis Ephestion] var. a Viridis

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Location of “type(s)” not known, may be in FMNH.

                         =    ‡”atlantis” (Nakahara, 1923)

Entomol. News 34(1): 10.

Original Combination: Basilarchia astyanax ab.atlantis

Type Locality: “Elmhurst, Long Island” [Queens County, New York]

Types: “Holotype” in USNM.

                         =    ‡”inornata” (Nakahara, 1924)

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 19(5): 174.

Original Combination: [Basilarchia arthemis astyanax] form inornata

Type Locality: “Glendale, L. I., N. Y.” [Queens County, New York]

Types: “Holotype” in USNM.

                         =    ‡”purpuratus” (Gunder, 1934)

Can. Entomol. 66(2): 43-44, no. 9.

Original Combination: Basilarchia astyanax form purpuratus

Type Locality: “Scranton, Penna.” [Lackawanna County, Pennsylvania]

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

                         =    ‡”tildeni” (W. D. Field, 1934)

Can. Entomol. 66(11): 255-256.

Original Combination: Basilarchia astyanax tr. f. tildeni

Type Locality: “a small wooded area about two miles from Lawrence, Kansas, up the Kaw river” [Douglas County]

Types: “Holotype” in USNM.

Bibliography

 

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