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Lycaena phlaeas hypophlaeas (Boisduval, 1852)
(American Copper)

Pinned Specimens
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Pinned Specimens
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Larval Foodplants & Habitats
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Distribution and Larval Foodplants:

Larval Foodplants: Rumex acetosella L.


(From: A Catalogue of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada, Jonathan P. Pelham)

Genus Lycaena [Fabricius], 1807

In: Illiger Mag. f. Insektenk. 6: 285, no. 32. Type-species: Papilio phlaeas Linnaeus, 1761, Fauna Svecica (ed. 2): 285, no. 1078, by designation of J. Curtis (1824), Brit. Entomol. 1(3): pl. 12, [1]. American species in this genus were reviewed by Pratt and D. Wright (2003), Pan-Pac. Entomol. 78(4): 219-229.


Lycaena phlaeas (Linnaeus, 1761)

Fauna Svecica (ed. 2): 285, no. 1078; cited Linnaeus (1746), Fauna Svecica: 247, 248, no. 807, Merian (1730), Europ. Ins.: pl. 164, Petiver (1699), Mus. Petiver. Cent. Rar. Nat. Cont. (4/5): 34, no. 317, and Ray (1710), Hist. Ins.: 125, no. 20.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. P[lebejus ruricola]. Phlaeas

Type Locality: “in pratis Westmanniae” [Vestmanland, Sweden]

Types: Type(s) apparently lost, as noted by Honey and Scoble (2001), Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 132(3): 365.

            =    eleus (Fabricius, 1798)

Entomol. Syst. Suppl.: 430.

Original Combination: H[esperia]. R[urales]. Eleus

Type Locality: “Germania”

Types: Syntype in ZMUC.


Lycaena phlaeas hypophlaeas (Boisduval, 1852)

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (2)10(2): 291, no. 23.

Original Combination: Polyommatus Hypophlaeas

Type Locality: “Nord de la California”; suggested to be “the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California...could well have been the gold region in Tuolumne County” by Shields [1968], J. Res. Lepid. 6(1): 22; lectotype from “vicinity of Boston Massachusetts.”

Types: Lectotype in USNM, designated by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (2): 12, figs. 33 ♂ D, 34 ♂ V.

The identity of the lectotype dictates the current synonymy. Opler (1999), Field Guide W. Butts.: 187, suggested that this taxon represents a human-assisted introduction to the New World, without supporting evidence.

                   =    americana T. Harris, 1862

Ins. injur. Veget. (3rd ed.): 273-274, fig. 104 ♀ D&V.

Original Combination: Lycaena Americana

Type Locality: “Massachusetts” implied from the title of the first edition of the book.

Types: Syntypes in MCZ.

This name was listed by d’Urban (1860), Can. Nat. Geol. 5(2): 91, no. 21, and (1860), Can. Nat. Geol. 5(4): 246, no. 1 (both times citing T. Harris), without a description or indication; nomina nuda.

                         =    ‡”fasciata” (Strecker, 1878)

Butts. Moths N. Am., Comp. Syn. Cat.: 101, no. 158a.

Original Combination: [Chrysophanus Phlaeas var. Americana] ab. a. ♀ Fasciata

Type Locality: “Florida” apparently in error.

Types: “Holotype” in FMNH; “paratype” figured by W. Holland (1931), Butt. Book (rev. ed.): pl. 64, fig. 45 ♀ D.

                         =    ‡”fulliolus” (Hulst, 1886)

Entomol. Am. 2(9): 182.

Original Combination: Chrysophanus americanus ab. fulliolus

Type Locality: Not stated; “holotype” from “Long Island” recorded by Ottolengui (1895), Entomol. News 6(7): 217. [New York]

Types: “Holotype” in USNM.

                         =    ‡”obliterata” (Scudder, 1889)

Butts. E. U. S. & Can. 2(7): 1001-1002; cited a specimen figured by Maynard (1886), Butts. N. Engl.: pl. 5, figs. 52, 52a.

Original Combination: H[eodes]. h[ypophlaeas]. [ab.] obliterata

Type Locality: “New England” implied from the title of Maynard’s book.

Types: “Holotype” probably lost, possibly in MCZ.

                         =    ‡”adrienne” (Maynard, 1891)

Manual N. Am. Butts.: 153, no. 395b.

Original Combination: Chrysophanus phlaeas adrienne

Type Locality: “Eastern Massachusetts”

Types: Location of “holotype” not known, possibly in MCZ.

The text clearly indicates that this taxon was described as an individual variant.

                         =    ‡”caeca” (Reiff, 1913)

Entomol. News 24(7): 306, pl. 10, figs. 3 ♂ D, 4 ♂ V (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Heodes phlaeas f. nov. caeca

Type Locality: “West Roxbury, Mass.” [Suffolk County, Massachusetts]

Types: “Holotype” probably in MCZ.

                         =    ‡”octomaculata” (Dean, 1918)

Lepidoptera 2(8): 60.

Original Combination: Chrysophanus hypophlaeas ab. octomaculata

Type Locality: “the southwestern portion of the city” [St. Louis, St. Louis County, Missouri]

Types: Location of “holotype” not known.

                         =    ‡”banksi” (F. Watson & W. Comstock, 1920)

Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 42(10): 454-455.

Original Combination: Heodes hypophlaeas hypophlaeas ab. banksi

Type Locality: “Lexington, Massachusetts” [Middlesex County]

Types: “Holotype” (#15956) in MCZ.

                         =    ‡”fulvus” (Rummel, 1929)

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 23(5): 268.

Original Combination: Heodes hypophlaeas ab. fulvus

Type Locality: “Green Village, N. J....Old Bridge, N. J.” [Green Village, Morris County; Old Bridge, Middlesex County, New Jersey]

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

                         =    ‡”neui” (Rummel, 1929)

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 23(5): 268.

Original Combination: Heodes hypophlaeas ab. neui

Type Locality: “Hillside, N. J.” [Union County, New Jersey]

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

‡”bacchus” Scudder, 1889

Butts. E. U. S. & Can. 2(7): 998.

Original Combination: [Heodes hypophlaeas] = Lycaena bacchus Harr. manuscript

A manuscript name credited to T. Harris, listed in the synonymy of americana without description or indication; a nomen nudum.



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