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Papilio cresphontes Cramer, 1777
(Giant Swallowtail)

Pinned Specimens
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Live Adults photo collection
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Immatures photo collection
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Larval Foodplants and Habitats
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Distribution and Larval Foodplants:

Canada to Panama, Cuba, sporadic elsewhere

Helietta parvifolia (Gray ex Hemsl.) Benth.


(From: A Catalogue of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada, Jonathan P. Pelham)

Genus Papilio Linnaeus, 1758

Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 458. Type-species: Papilio machaon Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 462, no. 27, by designation of Latreille (1810), Consid. gén. Anim. Crust. Arach. Ins.: 350, 440. I.C.Z.N. Opinion 278 placed this name on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology as name no. 703. The generic and subgeneric arrangement follows J. Miller (1987), Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 186(4): 365-512.


Papilio cresphontes Cramer, 1777

Uitl. Kapellen 2(14): 106-107, pl. 165, figs. A ♀ D&V, pl. 166, fig. B ♂ D; (16): 148 (index); cited Daubenton [1765], Miscellanea: pl. 69.

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Equ[es]. Achiv[us]. Cresphontes

Type Locality: “Noord-Amerika, te Nieuwjork en op het Eiland Jamaika...Zuid-Carolina” “l’Amerique Septentrionale, à la nouvelle-York & dans l’Isle de la Jamaïque...Caroline Méridionale”

Types: Location of type(s) not known, probably lost.

                   =    ‡oxilus (Hübner, [1819])

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (6): 83, no. 850; cited Papilio cresphontes Cramer, 1777, Uitl. Kapellen 2(14): pls. 166 A & 165 B: (16): 148 (index).

Original Combination: Heraclides Oxilus

Proposed as a replacement name for Papilio cresphontes Cramer, 1777, erroneously thought preoccupied, with the same data; a junior objective synonym of cresphontes.

            =    pennsylvanicus F. Chermock & R. Chermock, 1945

Proc. Penn. Acad. Sci. 19: 38-39.

Original Combination: Papilio cresphontes pennsylvanicus

Type Locality: “State College, Pa.” [Centre County, Penssylvania]

Types: Holotype in CMNH.

                   =    ‡”lurida” Schultz, 1908

Entomol. Z. 22(23): 92.

Original Combination: Papilio cresphontes ab. (nov.) lurida

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Location of “type” not known.

                   =    ‡”luxuriosa” Reiff, 1911

Z. wiss. InsektBiol. 7(5/6): 159.

Original Combination: [Papilio thoas cresphontes] ab. luxuriosa

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: “Holotype” in MCZ.

                   =    ‡”intacta” Strand, 1917

Soc. Entomol. 33(12): 47.

Original Combination: Papilio cresphontes ab. intacta

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Location of “type” not known, possibly in DEI.

                   =    ‡”maxwelli” Franck, 1919

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 14(1): 3, fig. 2 (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Papilio cresphontes var. maxwelli

Type Locality: Not originally stated; said to be “St. Petersburg, Fla.” by Franck (1919), Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 14(3): 101. [Pinellas County, Florida]

Types: “Holotype” in USNM, according to Calhoun (1992), J. Lepid. Soc. 46(3): 238.

                   =    ‡”forsythae” Gunder, 1933

Can. Entomol. 65(8): 171.

Original Combination: Papilio cresphontes tr. f. forsythae

Type Locality: “Florida City, Florida” [Miami-Dade County]

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

                   =    ‡”melanurus” Hoffmann, 1940

An. Inst. Biol. Univ. Méx. 11(2): 633-634.

Original Combination: Papilio cresphontes forma melanurus

Type Locality: “Chilpancingo e Iguala” [Guerrero, Mexico]

Types: “Syntypes” in AMNH.



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