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Phyciodes p. pallida (W. H. Edwards, 1864)
(Pale Crescent)

Pinned Specimens photo collection Page 1:

Pinned Specimens photo collection Page 2:

Live Adults photo collection:

Larval Foodplants and Habitats photo collection:

Distribution and Larval Foodplants:

Larval Foodplants: Asteraceae: Cirsium ochrocentrum Gray, Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Cirsium undulatum (Nutt.) Spreng.


(From: A Catalogue of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada, Jonathan P. Pelham)

Genus Phyciodes Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (2): 29. Type-species: Papilio cocyta Cramer, 1777, Uitl. Kapellen 2(9): 7, pl. 101, figs. A, B; (16): 148 (index), by designation of Scudder (1872), 4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 46. The arrangement of species in this genus follows Wahlberg et al. (2003), Syst. Entomol. 28(2): 257-273.


Phyciodes pallida (W. H. Edwards, 1864)


Phyciodes pallida pallida (W. H. Edwards, 1864)

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 2(4): 501, 505, no. 6.

Original Combination: Melitaea Pallida

Type Locality: “Texas. Kansas”; neotype from “Flagstaff Mt., Boulder Colo.” [Boulder County, Colorado]

Types: Neotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown (1966), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 92(3): 448, fig. 28 ♀ D&V.

Species-genus gender conformation is pallidus.

                   =    mata (Reakirt, 1866)

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 6(1): 142.

Original Combination: Eresia mata

Type Locality: “Rocky Mountains, Colorado Terr.”; defined as “Flagstaff Mt., Boulder Colo.” by Scott (1994), Papilio (n.s.) 7: 11. [Boulder County]

Types: Holotype in FMNH; figured by Strecker (1874), Lepid. Rhop. Het. (8): pl. 8, fig. 11 ♀ D&V.


Barnes, William and James Halliday McDunnough. 1916. Notes on North American diurnal Lepidoptera. Contributions to the Natural History of the Lepidoptera of North America 3(2): 49-156, 8 pls. {15 Dec 1916} 

Brown, Frederick Martin. 1966. The types of the nymphalid butterflies described by William Henry Edwards--Part II, Melitaeinae. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 92(3): 357-468, 34 figs. {Sep, 20 Oct 1966} 

Edwards, William Henry. 1864. Description of certain species of diurnal Lepidoptera found within the limits of the United States and British North America. No. 3. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Philadelphia 2[4]: 501-507. {Mar, preprint [Apr]; paper [9 May] 1864} [description of Melitaea Pallida

Ferris, Clifford Duras and Frederick Martin Brown. 1981. Butterflies of the Rocky Mountain States. Oklahoma; Univ. Oklahoma Press: 442 pp., 4 cpls., many figures [contributions from Donald Eff, Scott Ellis, Michael Fisher, Lee D. Miller, James Scott and Raymond Stanford] {1981} 

Forbes, William Trowbridge Merrifield. 1945. The genus Phyciodes (Lepidoptera, Nymphalinae). Entomologica Americana (n.s.)24: 139-207. {Oct 1944, 24 May 1945} 

Hall, Arthur. 1928-1930. A revision of the genus Phyciodes Hubn. (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae). Bulletin of the Hill Museum 2(2)(supplement 1): 1-20, pls. 1-3 {18 Jun 1928} 2(3)(supplement): 21-44 {17 Nov 1928}; 3(1)(supplement): 45-94 {30 Apr 1929}; 3(2)(supplement): 95-146 {29 Aug 1929}; 3(3)(supplement): 147-170 {30 Dec 1929}; 4(1)(supplement): 171-204 {28 Jul 1930}; 4(2)(supplement): 205-206; add. Page {29 Dec 1930} 

Higgins, Lionel George. 1981. A revision of Phyciodes Hübner and related genera, with a review of the classification of the Melitaeinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) (Entomology) 43(3): 77-243, 490 figs. {29 Oct 1981} 

Reakirt, Tryon. 1866. Coloradian butterflies. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Philadelphia 6[1]: 122-151; fig. 1, pl. 1. {Jun 1866} [description of Eresia mata

Röber, Johannes Karl Max 1913-1914. Gattung Phyciodes. In: A. Seitz (Ed.), Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde 5(162): pl. 92 {5 Jun 1913}; (183): 434-440, pl. 90 {10 Dec 1913}; (188): 449-450, pls. 88, 89. {[before 10 Feb] 1914}; (189): pl. 91. {14 Apr 1914} 

Scott, James A. 1992. Hostplant records for butterflies and skippers (mostly from Colorado) 1959-1991, with new life histories and notes on oviposition, immatures, and ecology. Papilio (n.s.) 6: 1-171, 10 tables {5 Jul 1992}

Scott, James A. 1994. Biology and systematics of Phyciodes (Phyciodes). Papilio (n.s.) 7: 1-120, 227 figs., 12 tables {18 Nov 1994} [description of Phyciodes (Phyciodes) pulchella shoshoni

Scott, James A. 1975. Early stages of Phyciodes pallida, P. orseis, and P. mylitta (Nymphalidae). Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 14(2): 84. {May 1975} 

Scott, James A. 1998. Phyciodes (Phyciodes): New discoveries, new subspecies, and convergence. Papilio (New Series) 10: 1-42, 41 figs., 5 tbls. {20 Feb 1998} 

Scott, James A. 2006. Phyciodes (Phyciodes): more progress. Papilio (New Series) 13: 38 pp., 5 tbls., cartoon {28 Apr 2006} 

Strecker, Ferdinand Heinrich Herman. 1874. 8. Descriptions and (24) figures of ten species and varieties of Diurnal Lep. Pp. 61-68, in: Lepidoptera, rhopaloceres and heteroceres, indigenous and exotic; with descriptions and colored illustrations. Reading, Pennsylvania; Private, {[27 Feb] 1874} 

Tilden, James William. [1970]. Concerning the names and status of certain North American members of the genus Phyciodes. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 8(3): 94-98. {3 Sep 1969 [21 Dec 1970]}

Wahlberg, Niklas, Rita Oliviera and James A. Scott. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships of Phyciodes butterfly species (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): complex mtDNA variations and species delimitations. Systematic Entomology 28(2): 257-273, 4 figs., 2 tbls., 1 app. {Apr 2003}

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