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Phyciodes p. phaon (W. H. Edwards, 1864)
(Phaon Crescent)

Pinned Specimens
photo collection:


 

Live Adults photo collection
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Live Adults photo collection
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Aberrations
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Immatures photo collection
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Immatures photo collection
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Distribution and Larval Foodplants:
 

Distribution: E & C Mexico, TX to FL & VA (strays far N), Cuba, Grand Cayman

Larval Foodplants: Verbenaceae: Phyla lanceolata (Michx.) Greene, Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene

Synonymy

(From: A Catalogue of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada, Jonathan P. Pelham)

Genus Phyciodes Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (2): 29. Type-species: Papilio cocyta Cramer, 1777, Uitl. Kapellen 2(9): 7, pl. 101, figs. A, B; (16): 148 (index), by designation of Scudder (1872), 4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 46. The arrangement of species in this genus follows Wahlberg et al. (2003), Syst. Entomol. 28(2): 257-273.

 

Phyciodes phaon (W. H. Edwards, 1864)

 

Phyciodes phaon phaon (W. H. Edwards, 1864)

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 2(4): 501, 505-506, no. 7; figured by W. H. Edwards (1878), Butts. N. Am. 2(7): pl. Phyciodes 2, figs. 14 ♂ V, 15 ♀ V, 16 ♂ D&V, 17 ♀ D&V.

Original Combination: Melitaea Phaon

Type Locality: “St. Simons Island, Georgia; Northern Georgia”; neotype from “San Simon Island, Glynn Co., Georgia.”

Types: Neotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown (1966), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 92(3): 437, fig. 26 ♂ D&V.

This taxon was figured by Hübner, [1810], Samml. exot. Schmett. 1: pl. [41], figs. 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V (as gorgone).

                         =    ‡”hiemalis” W. H. Edwards, 1878

Butts. N. Am. 2(7): [179], pl. Phyciodes 2, figs. 14 ♂ V winter form, 15 ♀ V winter form.

Original Combination: [Phyciodes Phaon] form Hiemalis

                         =    ‡”aestiva” W. H. Edwards, 1878

Butts. N. Am. 2(7): [179-180], pl. Phyciodes 2, figs. 16 ♂ D&V, 17 ♀ D&V.

Original Combination: [Phyciodes Phaon] form Aestiva

The two names listed above were proposed in an informal manner with no type data. F. Brown (1966), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 92(3): 437, did not detail these names in his study of W. H. Edwards’ types.

                         =    ‡”nox” (Gunder, 1928)

Can. Entomol. 60(7): 167, pl. B, figs. 17 ♂ D, 17a ♂ V (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Phyciodes gorgone tr. f. nox

Type Locality: “Brownsville, Texas” [Cameron County]

Types: “Holotype” in USNM.

Bibliography

Barnes, William and James Halliday McDunnough. 1916. Notes on North American diurnal Lepidoptera. Contributions to the Natural History of the Lepidoptera of North America 3(2): 49-156, 8 pls. {15 Dec 1916} 

Brown, Frederick Martin. 1966. The types of the nymphalid butterflies described by William Henry Edwards--Part II, Melitaeinae. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 92(3): 357-468, 34 figs. {Sep, 20 Oct 1966} 

Comstock, John Adams. 1927. Butterflies of California. A popular guide to a knowledge of the butterflies of California embracing all of the 477 species and varieties at present recorded from the state. Author, Los Angeles, California. 334 pp., 63 pls. {1927} 

Edwards, William Henry. 1864. Description of certain species of diurnal Lepidoptera found within the limits of the United States and British North America. No. 3. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Philadelphia 2[4]: 501-507. {Mar, preprint [Apr]; paper [9 May] 1864} [description of Melitaea Phaon

Edwards, William Henry. 1868-1897. The butterflies of North America. Boston; Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 1: [i], ii, [163], v, 52 pp., 50 pls. (1868-1872); 2: [i], [358] pp., 51 pls. (1874-1884); 3: [viii], [432] pp., 51 pls. (1887-1897) [description of Phyciodes Phaon form Hiemalis, Phyciodes Phaon form Aestiva

Ferris, Clifford Duras and Frederick Martin Brown. 1981. Butterflies of the Rocky Mountain States. Oklahoma; Univ. Oklahoma Press: 442 pp., 4 cpls., many figures [contributions from Donald Eff, Scott Ellis, Michael Fisher, Lee D. Miller, James Scott and Raymond Stanford] {1981} 

Forbes, William Trowbridge Merrifield. 1945. The genus Phyciodes (Lepidoptera, Nymphalinae). Entomologica Americana (n.s.)24: 139-207. {Oct 1944, 24 May 1945} 

Gunder, Jean Daniel. 1926. Several new aberrant Lepidoptera (Rhopalocera). Entomological News 37(1): 1-9, pl. 1. {[7] Jan 1926} [description of Phyciodes gorgone tr. f. nox

Hall, Arthur. 1928-1930. A revision of the genus Phyciodes Hubn. (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae). Bulletin of the Hill Museum 2(2)(supplement 1): 1-20, pls. 1-3 {18 Jun 1928} 2(3)(supplement): 21-44 {17 Nov 1928}; 3(1)(supplement): 45-94 {30 Apr 1929}; 3(2)(supplement): 95-146 {29 Aug 1929}; 3(3)(supplement): 147-170 {30 Dec 1929}; 4(1)(supplement): 171-204 {28 Jul 1930}; 4(2)(supplement): 205-206; add. Page {29 Dec 1930}

Higgins, Lionel George. 1981. A revision of Phyciodes Hübner and related genera, with a review of the classification of the Melitaeinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) (Entomology) 43(3): 77-243, 490 figs. {29 Oct 1981}

Hoffmann, Carlos Christian. 1940. Catálogo systemático y zoogeográphico de los Lepidópteros Mexicanos, Primera parte. Papilionoidea. Anales del Instituto de Biología. Universidad Nacional de México 11(2): 639-739, 2 maps. {[after 28 Dec] 1940} 

Hübner, Jacob. 1806-1838. Sammlung Exotischer Schmetterlinge. Augsburg, Author; Geyer after Hübner=s death. 3 volumes of named but not numbered plates, with short, unpaginated, text. 

Kendall, Roy O=Neal. 1964. Larval foodplants for twenty-six species of Rhopalocera (Papilionodiea) from Texas. Journal of the Lepidopterists= Society 18(3): 129-157. {2 Nov 1964} 

Oliver, Charles G. 1982. Experimental iybridization between Phyciodes tharos and P. phaon (Nymphalidae). Journal of the Lepidopterists= Society 36(2): 121-131, 2 figs., 4 tbls. {24 Sep 1982} 

Röber, Johannes Karl Max 1913-1914. Gattung Phyciodes. In: A. Seitz (Ed.), Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde 5(162): pl. 92 {5 Jun 1913}; (183): 434-440, pl. 90 {10 Dec 1913}; (188): 449-450, pls. 88, 89. {[before 10 Feb] 1914}; (189): pl. 91. {14 Apr 1914} 

Scott, James A. 1998. Phyciodes (Phyciodes): New discoveries, new subspecies, and convergence. Papilio (n.s.) 10: 1-42, 41 figs., 5 tables {20 Feb 1998} 

Wahlberg, Niklas, Rita Oliviera and James A. Scott. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships of Phyciodes butterfly species (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): complex mtDNA variations and species delimittions. Systematic Entomology 28(2): 257-273, 4 figs., 2 tbls., 1 app. {Apr 2003}

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