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Phyciodes pulchella montana (Behr, 1863)
(Field Crescent)

Type Specimens
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Pinned Specimens
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Pinned Specimens
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Live Adults photo collection
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Live Adults photo collection
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Larval Foodplants and Habitats
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Distribution and Larval Foodplants:
 

Asteraceae: Eurybia integrifolia (Nutt.) Nesom, Symphyotrichum chilense var. chilense (Nees) Nesom, Symphyotrichum foliaceum var. parryi  (D.C. Eat.) Nesom, Symphyotrichum spathulatum var. spathulatum  (Lindl.) Nesom

Synonymy

(From: A Catalogue of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada, Jonathan P. Pelham)

Genus Phyciodes Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (2): 29. Type-species: Papilio cocyta Cramer, 1777, Uitl. Kapellen 2(9): 7, pl. 101, figs. A, B; (16): 148 (index), by designation of Scudder (1872), 4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 46. The arrangement of species in this genus follows Wahlberg et al. (2003), Syst. Entomol. 28(2): 257-273.

 

Phyciodes pulchella (Boisduval, 1852)

The use of this name over campestris (Behr, 1863) and pratensis (Behr, 1863), follows Scott (1994), Papilio (n.s.) 7: 65-73, reiterated by Kondla and C. Guppy (2002), J. Lepid. Soc. 56(3): 171-172. While the various aspects of the applicability of this name were discussed by these authors, some dispute the issue (e.g., Layberry, et al. (1998), Butts. Can.: 191), and a petition to the I.C.Z.N. may be needed to resolve the matter.

Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (2)10(2): 306, no. 49.

Original Combination: Melitaea pulchella

Type Locality: “dans une grande partie de la Californie”; redefined as “dans le centre de la Californie” by Boisduval (1868), Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 12: 20, no. 50; defined as “San Francisco, California” by Scott (1994), Papilio (n.s.) 7: 73. [San Francisco County]

Types: Lectotype in USNM, designated by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (2): 18, figs. 102 ♂ D, 103 ♂ V. This specimen was earlier designated as neotype by Scott (1994), Papilio (n.s.) 7: 72, figs. 179 ♂ D, 180 ♂ V, but it appears to be a syntype.

Species-genus gender conformation is pulchellus.

=    pratensis (Behr, 1863)

Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. [1]3(6): 86, no. 4.

Original Combination: M[elitaea]. pratensis

Type Locality: “California” implied from the title of the paper, “on grassy hillsides...in some localities near San Francisco” from the description; neotype from “Old Cemetery, San Francisco, San Francisco County, California.”

Types: Type(s) destroyed in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire; neotype in CAS, designated by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (6): 99, figs. 25 ♂ D, 26 ♂ V.

=    campestris (Behr, 1863)

Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. [1]3(6): 86, no. 3.

Original Combination: M[elitaea]. campestris

Type Locality: “California” implied from the title of the paper, “especially on marshy places...peculiar to the lower regions” from the description; neotype from “Old Cemetery, San Francisco, San Francisco County, California.”

Types: Type(s) destroyed in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire; neotype in CAS, designated by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (6): 100, figs. 28 ♀ D, 29 ♀ V.

As first reviser, precedence was given to pratensis over campestris by W. H. Edwards (1872), Synop. N. A. Butts.: 18, no. 15.

Phyciodes pulchella montana (Behr, 1863)

Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. [1]3(6): 85-86, no. 1.

Original Combination: M[elitaea]. montana

Type Locality: “California” implied from the title of the paper, “in the neighborhood of Los Angeles...at the headwaters of the Tuolumne River...from Yosemite Valley” from the description; neotype from “Tuolumne Meadows, Tuolumne County, California.”

Types: Type(s) destroyed in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire; neotype in LACM, designated by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (6): 100, figs. 31 ♂ D, 32 ♂ V.

=    orsa (Boisduval, 1869)

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 12: 55, no. 41; figured by Oberthür (1914), Étud. Lépid. Comp. 9(2): pl. 259, fig. 2178 ♂ D&V (lectotype), 2179 ♀ D&V.

Original Combination: Melitaea Orsa

Type Locality: “Interieur de la Californie”; defined as “Gold Lake, Sierra County, California” by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (2): 32.

Types: Lectotype in USNM, designated by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (2): 32, figs. 237 ♂ D, 238 ♂ V. A “lectotype” in BMNH, designated by Higgins (1981), Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 43(3): 88, could not be located by J. Emmel et al. (1998), ibid., and is probably not a syntype (Code Article 74.2).

 

Phyciodes pulchella montana (Behr, 1863)

Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. [1]3(6): 85-86, no. 1.

Original Combination: M[elitaea]. montana

Type Locality: “California” implied from the title of the paper, “in the neighborhood of Los Angeles...at the headwaters of the Tuolumne River...from Yosemite Valley” from the description; neotype from “Tuolumne Meadows, Tuolumne County, California.”

Types: Type(s) destroyed in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire; neotype in LACM, designated by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (6): 100, figs. 31 ♂ D, 32 ♂ V.

                   =    orsa (Boisduval, 1869)

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 12: 55, no. 41; figured by Oberthür (1914), Étud. Lépid. Comp. 9(2): pl. 259, fig. 2178 ♂ D&V (lectotype), 2179 ♀ D&V.

Original Combination: Melitaea Orsa

Type Locality: “Interieur de la Californie”; defined as “Gold Lake, Sierra County, California” by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (2): 32.

Types: Lectotype in USNM, designated by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (2): 32, figs. 237 ♂ D, 238 ♂ V. A “lectotype” in BMNH, designated by Higgins (1981), Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 43(3): 88, could not be located by J. Emmel et al. (1998), ibid., and is probably not a syntype (Code Article 74.2).

Bibliography

Behr, Hans Herman. 1863. On Californian Lepidoptera--No. III. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 3(1)([sig.]6): 84-93. {Dec 1863} [description of M[elitaea]. montana

Boisduval, Jean Baptiste Alphonse d'Echauffour. 1868-1869. Lépidoptères de la Californie. Annales de la Société entomologique de Belgique 12: 1-28 (1868); 37-94 ([1 Nov] 1869) [missing pp. 29-37 through printer's error] {1868-1869} [description of Melitaea Orsa

Comstock, John Adams. 1927. Butterflies of California. A popular guide to a knowledge of the butterflies of California embracing all of the 477 species and varieties at present recorded from the state. Author, Los Angeles, California. 334 pp., 63 pls. {1927} 

Davenport, Kenneth E. 2004. The Yosemite butterflies. The Taxonomic Report of the International Lepidoptera Survey 5(1): 1-75, figs. {29 Dec 2004} 

Davenport, Kenneth E., Norbert G. Kondla, Charles Grisham and C. Howard Grisham. 2007. The Yosemite butterflies: color plates. The Taxonomic Report of the International Lepidoptera Survey 5(2): 1-83, color figs. {15 Mar 2007} 

Emmel, J. F. & T. C. Emmel. 1974. Ecological studies of Rhopalocera in a Sierra Nevadan community- Donner Pass, California. V. Faunal additions and foodplant records since 1962. Journal of the Lepidopterists= Society 28(4): 344-348. {27 Dec 1974} 

Emmel, John F., Thomas Chadbourne Emmel and Sterling O. Mattoon. 1998. 2. The types of California butterflies named by Jean Alphonse Boisduval: designation of lectotypes and a neotype, and fixation of type localities. Pp. 3-76, 269 figs., in: T. C. Emmel (Ed.), Systematics of western North American butterflies. Gainesville; Mariposa Press; {[18] Dec 1998} 

Emmel, John F., Thomas Chadbourne Emmel and Sterling O. Mattoon. 1998. 6. The types of California butterflies named by Herman Behr: designations of neotypes and fixation of type localities. Pp. 95-114, 78 figs., in: T. C. Emmel (Ed.), Systematics of western North American Butterflies. Gainesville; Mariposa Press; {[18] Dec 1998} 

Forbes, William Trowbridge Merrifield. 1945. The genus Phyciodes (Lepidoptera, Nymphalinae). Entomoogica Americana (n.s.)24: 139-207. {Oct 1944, 24 May 1945} 

Hall, Arthur. 1928-1930. A revision of the genus Phyciodes Hubn. (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae). Bulletin of the Hill Museum 2(2)(supplement 1): 1-20, pls. 1-3 {18 Jun 1928} 2(3)(supplement): 21-44 {17 Nov 1928}; 3(1)(supplement): 45-94 {30 Apr 1929}; 3(2)(supplement): 95-146 {29 Aug 1929}; 3(3)(supplement): 147-170 {30 Dec 1929}; 4(1)(supplement): 171-204 {28 Jul 1930}; 4(2)(supplement): 205-206; add. Page {29 Dec 1930}

Higgins, Lionel George. 1981. A revision of Phyciodes Hübner and related genera, with a review of the classification of the Melitaeinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) (Entomology) 43(3): 77-243, 490 figs. {29 Oct 1981} 

Lamas, Gerardo. 1999. Nomenclatural faux‑pas among western North American butterflies. Lepidoptera News 1999(2): 7-8 {30 June [19 Aug] 1999} 

Oberthür, Charles. 1914. VII. Les Lépidoptères de la Californie par le Docteur Boisduval. Études de Lépidopterologie comp. 9(2): 73-90; pls. 258-264 {May 1914} 

Oliver, Charles G. 1978. Experimental hybridization between the nymphalid butterflies Phyciodes tharos and P. campestris montana. Evolution 32(3): 594-601, 3 figs., 3 tbls. {24 Oct 1978} 

Röber, Johannes Karl Max 1913-1914. Gattung Phyciodes. In: A. Seitz (Ed.), Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde 5(162): pl. 92 {5 Jun 1913}; (183): 434-440, pl. 90 {10 Dec 1913}; (188): 449-450, pls. 88, 89. {[before 10 Feb] 1914}; (189): pl. 91. {14 Apr 1914} 

Scott, James A. 1994. Biology and systematics of Phyciodes (Phyciodes). Papilio (n.s.) 7: 1-120, 227 figs., 12 tables {18 Nov 1994} 

Shapiro, Arthur Maurice. 1975. Ecotypic variation in montane butterflies. Wassman Journal of Bioliology 32(2): 267-280 {Fall, 1974, 1975} 

Wahlberg, Niklas, Rita Oliviera and James A. Scott. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships of Phyciodes butterfly species (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): complex mtDNA variations and species delimitations. Systematic Entomology 28(2): 257-273, 4 figs., 2 tbls., 1 app. {Apr 2003}

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