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Phyciodes t. tharos (Drury, 1773)
(Pearl Crescent)

Pinned Specimens
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Pinned Specimens
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Aberrations
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Live Adults
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Live Adults
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Live Adults
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Larval Foodplants and Habitats photo collection:

Distribution and Larval Foodplants:
 

Larval Foodplants: Asteraceae: Aster lanceolatus ssp. lanceolatus var. lanceolatus Willd., Oclemena acuminata  (Michx.) Greene, Symphyotrichum ciliolatum  (Lindl.) A.& D. Löve, Symphyotrichum divaricatum  (Nutt.) Nesom, Symphyotrichum drummondii var. texanum  (Burgess) Nesom, Symphyotrichum dumosum var. dumosum  (L.) Nesom, Symphyotrichum ericoides var. ericoides  (L.) Nesom, Symphyotrichum laeve var. laeve  (L.) A.& D. Löve, Symphyotrichum lanceolatum var. hesperium  (Gray) Nesom, Symphyotrichum lateriflorum var. lateriflorum  (L.) A.& D. Löve, Symphyotrichum novae‑angliae  (L.) Nesom, Symphyotrichum pilosum var. pilosum  (Willd.) Nesom, Symphyotrichum praealtum (Poir.) Nesom, Symphyotrichum puniceum var. puniceum  (L.) A.& D. Löve, Symphyotrichum subulatum (Michx.) Nesom

Synonymy

(From: A Catalogue of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada, Jonathan P. Pelham)

Genus Phyciodes Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (2): 29. Type-species: Papilio cocyta Cramer, 1777, Uitl. Kapellen 2(9): 7, pl. 101, figs. A, B; (16): 148 (index), by designation of Scudder (1872), 4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 46. The arrangement of species in this genus follows Wahlberg et al. (2003), Syst. Entomol. 28(2): 257-273.

 

Phyciodes tharos (Drury, 1773)

 

Phyciodes tharos tharos (Drury, 1773)

Illustr. Nat. Hist. 1: 43-44, pl. 21, figs. 5 ♂ D, 6 ♂ V (1770); 2: index (1773, name given).

Original Combination: [Papilio Dan. Fest.] Tharos

Type Locality: “New York”; neotype from “Van Courtlandt Park, New York City.” [Bronx County]

Types: Type(s) may be in MAMU, but are probably lost. Neotype in AMNH, designated by Scott (1994), Papilio (n.s.) 7: 28, fig. 90 ♂ D.

                   =    euclea (Bergsträsser, [1780])

Nom. Ins. 4: 23-24, pl. 79, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V.

Original Combination: [Papilio] Euclea

Type Locality: “England”; stated to be “North America” by Higgins (1981), Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 43(3): 85; neotype from “New York City and vicinity.” [New York]

Types: Location of type(s) not known, probably lost. Neotype in AMNH, designated by Scott (1994), Papilio (n.s.) 7: 28, fig. 97 ♂ D.

                   =    tharossa (Godart, 1819)

In: Ency. méth. 9(Ins.)(1): (256), 289-290, no. 61; cited Papilio cocyta Cramer, 1777, Uitl. Kapellen 2(9): pl. 101, figs. A, B, C; (16): 148 (index), Papilio tharos Drury, 1773, Illustr. Nat. Hist. 1: 43-44, pl. 21, figs. 5, 6, and Papilio euclea (sensu Herbst (1780), in: Jablonsky, Natursyst. Ins., Schmett. 10: pl. 274, figs. 9, 10).

Original Combination: Argynnis Tharossa

Type Locality: “l’Amérique septentrionale, & particulièrement dans l’Etat de New York” [New York]

Types: Syntype in RSM. Grimshaw (1897), Trans. R. Soc. Edinburgh 39, part I(1): 4, noted a “type” in the Dufresne collection in Edinburgh.

This name might be an unjustified emendation of tharos Drury, [1773].

                   =    packardii Saunders, 1868

In: Packard, Guide Study Ins.: 256-257.

Original Combination: Melitaea Packardii

Type Locality: “near Grimsby, Ontario County, Canada”

Types: Location of type(s) not known, possibly in CNC; figured by W. H. Edwards (1878), Butts. N. Am. 2(7): pl. Phyciodes 1, 11 ♀ V var. D, 12 ♂ V var. D.

                   =    distincta Bauer, 1975

In: Howe, Butts. N. Am.: 144, no. 6b.

Original Combination: [Phyciodes (Phyciodes) tharos] distincta

Type Locality: “Calexico, Imperial County, California”

Types: Location of holotype not known.

Bibliography

Aaron, Charles E. 1884. On the caterpillars of North American Papilionidae and Nymphalidae. Papilio 4(5/[6]): 83-91. {May-Jun [22 Jul] 1884} cited in Papilio 4(9/10): 189. [Translated from Gruber, August, 1884, Jena Zeitschrift für naturwissenschaft 17 (N.F. 10)

Bailowitz, Richard A. and James P. Brock. 1991. Butterflies of southeastern Arizona. Tucson, Arizona; Sonoran Arthropod Studies, Inc.: ix + 342 pp., 4 pls., figs. {1991} 

Bauer, David L. 1975. Tribe Melitaeini. Pp. 139-195, in: W. H. Howe (ed.) The butterflies of North America. Garden City, New York, Doubleday & Co.: xiii + 633 pp.; 97 pls., 32 tf. {[7 Nov] 1975} [description of Phyciodes (Phyciodes) tharos] distincta

Barnes, William and James Halliday McDunnough. 1916. Notes on North American diurnal Lepidoptera. Contributions to the Natural History of the Lepidoptera of North America 3(2): 49-156, 8 pls. {15 Dec 1916} 

Bergsträsser, Johann Andreas Benignus. [1778]-[1780]. Nomenclatur und Beschreibung der Insecten in der Grafschaf Hanau-Münzenburg, wie auch der Wetterau und der angrenzenden Nachbarschaft dies - und jenseits des Mains, mit erleuchteten Kupertafeln herausgegeben. Vols. 2-4 also titled: Naturgeschichte der Europäischen Schmetterlinge. Hanau; Author; 1: 88 pp., pls. 1-14 (1778); 2: 79 pp., pls. 15-48 (1779); 3: 48 pp., pls, 49-72 (1779); 4: 47 pp., pls. 73-96 (1780) [description of Papilio Euclea

Beutenmüller, William. 1893. Article XVI.-Descriptive catalogue of the butterflies found within fifty miles of New York City, together with a brief account of their life histories and habits. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 4(16): 241-310, 5 pls. {Oct 1893} 

Brown, Frederick Martin. 1944. Notes on Mexican Butterflies, IV. Journal of the New York entomological Society 52(4): 343-360. {[19] Dec 1944} 

Catling, Paul M. 1997. Biology of the black-antenna race of Phyciodes tharos tharos (Nymphalidae) in Ontario. Journal of the Lepidopterists= Society 51(3): 218-226, 1 fig. {1997} 

Comstock, John Adams. 1927. Butterflies of California. A popular guide to a knowledge of the butterflies of California embracing all of the 477 species and varieties at present recorded from the state. Author, Los Angeles, California. 334 pp., 63 pls. {1927}

Drury, Dru. 1770-1782. Illustrations of natural history.  Wherein are exhibited upwards of two hundred and forty figures of exotic insects, according to their different genera; very few of which have hitherto been figured by any author, being engraved and coloured from nature, with the greatest accuracy, and under the author's own inspection on fifty copper-plates; with a particular description of each insect: interpersed with remarks and reflections on the nature and properties of many of them.  To which is added a translation into French. London; White 1: xxvii + 130 + [2] pp.; 50 + 1 pls., 4 figs. ([23 Apr] 1770}; 1(index): xiii pp.; 2: vii + 90 + [4] pp.; 50 pls. {[14 May] 1773}; 3: xxviii + 76 + [2] pp.; 50 pls {[23 May] 1782} [description of Papilio tharos

Edwards, William Henry. 1868-1897. The butterflies of North America. Boston; Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 1: [i], ii, [163], v, 52 pp., 50 pls. (1868-1872); 2: [i], [358] pp., 51 pls. (1874-1884); 3: [viii], [432] pp., 51 pls. (1887-1897) 

Edwards, William Henry. 1873. Notes on the early stages of some of our butterflies. Canadian Entomologist 5(12): 223-225. {Dec 1873} 

Edwards, William Henry. 1877. History of Phyciodes tharos, a polymorphic butterfly. Canadian Entomologist, 9(1): 1-10. {Jan 1877} 

Edwards, William Henry. 1877. History of Phyciodes tharos, a polymorphic butterfly. Canadian Entomologist 9(3): 51-58. {Mar 1877} 

Ferris, Clifford Duras and Frederick Martin Brown. 1981. Butterflies of the Rocky Mountain States. Oklahoma; Univ. Oklahoma Press: 442 pp., 4 cpls., many figures [contributions from Donald Eff, Scott Ellis, Michael Fisher, Lee D. Miller, James Scott and Raymond Stanford[ {1981} 

Forbes, William Trowbridge Merrifield. 1945. The genus Phyciodes (Lepidoptera, Nymphalinae). Entomologica Americana (n.s.)24: 139-207. {Oct 1944, 24 May 1945} 

French, George Hazen. 1886. The butterflies of the eastern United States. Philadelphia, J. B. Lippencott Co.: 408 pp., 93 figs. {1886} 

Godart, Jean Baptiste. 1819-[1824]. In: Latreille & Godart, Encyclopédie méthodique.  Histoire naturelle.  Entomologie, ou histoire naturelle des crustacés, des arachnides et des insectes. Paris; veuve Agasse. Volume 9(1): I-ii, 3-328 pp. {[before 13 April] 1819}; 9(2): 329-828 pp. {[before 17 Jul 1824].[The whole volume is devoted to the article "Papillon."  pp.i, ii, 3-12. 706-707 and all extra European Hesperides to p.793 were by Latreille; the remaining portion was by J.B.Godart] {1819-[1824]} [description of Argynnis Tharossa

Hall, Arthur. 1928-1930. A revision of the genus Phyciodes Hubn. (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae). Bulletin of the Hill Museum 2(2)(supplement 1): 1-20, pls. 1-3 {18 Jun 1928} 2(3)(supplement): 21-44 {17 Nov 1928}; 3(1)(supplement): 45-94 {30 Apr 1929}; 3(2)(supplement): 95-146 {29 Aug 1929}; 3(3)(supplement): 147-170 {30 Dec 1929}; 4(1)(supplement): 171-204 {28 Jul 1930}; 4(2)(supplement): 205-206; add. Page {29 Dec 1930} 

Higgins, Lionel George. 1981. A revision of Phyciodes Hübner and related genera, with a review of the classification of the Melitaeinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) (Entomology) 43(3): 77-243, 490 figs. {29 Oct 1981}

Hoffmann, Carlos Christian. 1940. Catálogo systemático y zoogeográphico de los Lepidópteros Mexicanos, Primera parte. Papilionoidea. Anales del Instituto de Biología. Universidad Nacional de México 11(2): 639-739, 2 maps. {[after 28 Dec] 1940} 

Kendall, Roy O=Neal. 1964. Larval foodplants for twenty-six species of Rhopalocera (Papilionodiea) from Texas. Journal of the Lepidopterists= Society 18(3): 129-157. {2 Nov 1964} 

Maza, Roberto F. de la. 1987. Mariposas Mexicanas. Guía para su colecta y determinación. México; Fondo de Cultura Económica: 304 pp., 67 pls., 58 figs. {Oct 1987} [Ed. 2 1991] 

Maynard, Charles Johnson. 1886. The butterflies of New England; with original descriptions of one hundred and six species, accompanied by eight lithographic plates, in which are given at least two hand-colored figures of each species. Boston, Massachusetts, C. J. Maynard [Bradlee Whidden]: iv + [2] + 66 + [2] pp.; 8 pls. {Feb 1886} 

Mead, Theodore Luqueer. 1875. Notes upon some butterfly eggs and larvae. Canadian Entomologist 7(9): 161. {Sep 1875} 

Oliver, Charles G. 1978. Experimental hybridization between the nymphalid butterflies Phyciodes tharos and P. campestris montana. Evolution 32(3): 594-601, 3 figs., 3 tbls. {24 Oct 1978} 

Oliver, Charles G. 1979. Experimental hybridization between Phyciodes tharos and P. batesii (Nymphalidae). Journal of the Lepidopterists= Society 33(1): 6-20, 1 fig., 6 tbls. {4 Jun 1979} 

Oliver, Charles G. 1980. Phenotypic differentiation and hybrid breakdown with Phyciodes "tharos" (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in the northeastern United States. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 73(6): 715-721, 1 fig., 5 tbls. {15 Nov 1980}

Oliver, Charles G. 1982. Experimental iybridization between Phyciodes tharos and P. phaon (Nymphalidae). Journal of the Lepidopterists= Society 36(2): 121-131, 2 figs., 4 tbls. {24 Sep 1982} 

Porter, Adam H. and Joseph C. Mueller. 1998. Partial genetic isolation between Phyciodes tharos and P. cocyta (Nymphalidae). Journal of the Lepidopterists= Society 52(2): 182-205, 2 figs., 5 tbls. {21 Jul 1998} 

Röber, Johannes Karl Max 1913-1914. Gattung Phyciodes. In: A. Seitz (Ed.), Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde 5(162): pl. 92 {5 Jun 1913}; (183): 434-440, pl. 90 {10 Dec 1913}; (188): 449-450, pls. 88, 89. {[before 10 Feb] 1914}; (189): pl. 91. {14 Apr 1914} 

Saunders, William. 1869. In: A. S. Packard, A Guide to the Study of Insects, and a treatise on those injurious and beneficial to Crops, for the use of Colleges, Farm-Schools, and Agriculture. Salem; 8vo: viii+702 pp, 800 figs. (Lepidoptera: 256-278) [description of Melitaea Packardii]

Scott, James A. 1986. The courtship of Phyciodes, and the relationship between Phyciodes tharos tharos and Phyciodes tharos morpheus (= pascoensis) in Colorado. Papilio (n.s.) 5: 1-8, 1 fig. {5 Mar 1986} 

Scott, James A. 1992. Hostplant records for butterflies and skippers (mostly from Colorado) 1959-1991, with new life histories and notes on oviposition, immatures, and ecology. Papilio (n.s.) 6: 1-171, 10 tables {5 Jul 1992} 

Scott, James A. 1994. Biology and systematics of Phyciodes (Phyciodes). Papilio (n.s.) 7: 1-120, 227 figs., 12 tables {18 Nov 1994} 

Scott, James A. 1998. Phyciodes (Phyciodes): New discoveries, new subspecies, and convergence. Papilio (New Series) 10: 1-42, 41 figs., 5 tbls. {20 Feb 1998} 

Scott, James A. 2006. Phyciodes (Phyciodes): More progress. Papilio (New Series) 13: 38 pp., 5 tbls., cartoon {28 Apr 2006} 

Scudder, Samuel Hubbard. 1888-1889. The Butterflies of the eastern United States and Canada with Special Reference to New England. Cambridge; Samuel Hubbard Scudder, 1(introduction, Nymphalidae): xxiv +  766 pp., frtspc. (colored); 2(Lycaenidae, Papilionidae, Hesperiidae): xii + 767-1774, frtspc. (colored), 1 map; 3(appendix, plates): i-viii, 1775-1958, frtspc., pls. 1-89 (14 colored), 3 maps {[Nov 1888], [1Apr] 1889} 

Tilden, James Wilson. 1974. Melitaea pulchella Boisduval, 1852, a replacement name. Journal of the Lepidopterists= Society 28(4): 252-353. {27 Dec 1974} 

Wahlberg, Niklas, Rita Oliviera and James A. Scott. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships of Phyciodes butterfly species (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): complex mtDNA variations and species delimittions. Systematic Entomology 28(2): 257-273, 4 figs., 2 tbls., 1 app. {Apr 2003}

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