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Polygonia interrogationis (Fabricius, 1798)
(Question Mark)

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Larval Foodplants and Habitats photo collection:

Distribution and Larval Foodplants:
 

 

Synonymy

(From: A Catalogue of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada, Jonathan P. Pelham)

Genus Polygonia Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (3): 36. Type-species: Papilio c-aureum Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 477, no. 116, by designation of Scudder (1872) 4th Ann. Rept. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 30. The arrangement of Polygonia taxa follows Weingartner et al. (2006), J. Evol. Biol. 19(2): 483-491.

=    Eugonia Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (3): 36-37. Type-species: Papilio angelica Stoll, 1782, Uitl. Kapellen 4(33): 204, pl. 388, figs. G, H; (34): 247 (index) (= Papilio c-aureum Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 477, no. 116; synonym), by designation of Grote (1873), Can. Entomol. 5(8): 144.

=    Comma Rennie, 1832

Conspectus Butts. Moths: 8. Type-species: Papilio c-album Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 477, no. 115, by monotypy.

=    Grapta W. Kirby, 1837

In: Richardson, Fauna Bor.-Am. [4]: 292. Type-species: Vanessa (Grapta) c-argenteum W. Kirby, 1837, in: Richardson, Fauna Bor.-Am. [4]: 292, pl. 3, figs. 6, 7 (= Papilio progne Cramer, 1775, Uitl. Kapellen 1(1): 9, pl. 5, figs. E, F; (8): 154 (index); synonym), by monotypy.

=    Kaniska Moore, [1899]

Lepid. Ind. 4(41): 91. Type-species: Papilio canace Linnaeus, 1763, in: Johansson, Cent. Ins. Rar.: 23-24, no. 68, by original designation. Wahlberg and Nylin (2003), Cladistics 19(3): 221-222, and Wahlberg et al. (2005), Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 86(2): 250, determined this synonymy.

 

Polygonia interrogationis (Fabricius, 1798)

Entomol. Syst. Suppl.: 424.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. N[ymphalis] Interrogationis

Type locality: “America boreali”

Types: Syntypes in ZMUC.

            =    umbrosa (Lintner, 1869)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 2(4): 313-316.

Original Combination: Grapta umbrosa

Type Locality: “Schoharie” [Schoharie County, New York]

Types: Syntypes may be in NYSM.

            =    crameri (Scudder, 1870)

Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 13: 276; cited Papilio c-aurem sensu Cramer (1775), Uitl. Kapellen 1(2): pl. 19, figs. E, F, and sensu J. E. Smith (1797), in: Smith & Abbot, Ins. Georgia 1: pl. 11.

Original Combination: G[rapta]. Crameri

Type Locality: Not stated; Cramer listed “Jamaïca” “Jamaïque” in error; “Georgia” implied from the Smith and Abbot citation.

Types: Type(s) should be in MCZ.

            =    fabricii (W. H. Edwards, 1870)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 3(1): 5-7; figured by W. H. Edwards [1872], Butts. N. Am. 1(9): pl. Grapta 5, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V, 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V.

Original Combination: G[rapta]. Fabricii

Type Locality: “West Virginia”; defined as “[Coalburgh,] West Virginia” by F. Brown (1967), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 93(3): 323. [Kanawha County]

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown (1967), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 93(3): 325, fig. 1 ♂ D&V.

                   =    ‡tiliae (Fabricius, 1938)

In: Bryk, Syst. Glossat.: 90, no. 8; cited Papilio interrogationis Fabricius, 1798, Entomol. Syst. Suppl.: 424.

Original Combination: C[ynthia]. Tiliae

Proposed as a replacement name for Papilio interrogationis Fabricius, 1798, based on a larval foodplant illustrated by Smith and Abbot; a junior objective synonym of interrogationis.

Bibliography

 

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