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Porphyrogenes eudemus (Mabille, 1888)
(Eudemus Scarlet-eye)

Type Specimens photo collection:


 

Distribution and Larval Foodplants:
 

Panama, Peru

Diagnosis

The status of this taxon is currently unclear. Described from a female, which was incorrectly called "male" in several subsequent publications. Due to extreme sexual dimorphism, no males have been firmly associated with this female. The name eudemus might represent a valid species, a darker form of P. passalus, or a female of some Porphyrogenes species described earlier from males. Austin & Mielke (2008) treat this name as an "unassociated female". We will follow this treatment and will keep the name until more specimen are discovered and males are associated.

The lectotype female looks very much like P. passalus, but barker, with less green overscaling and with slight differences in the shape of the forewing white band.

 

Synonymy

 

Porphyrogenes eudemus (Mabille, 1888)

Naturaliste (2)2(39): 170, fig. 7 ♀ D&V.

Original Combination: Thymele Eudemus

Type Locality: “Chiriqui“ [Panama]

Types: Lectotype in MNHU, designated by Austin and Mielke 2008, Insecta Mundi 0044: 31, figs. 47 ♀ D, 48 ♀ V.

The status of this name is unclear and it represents an "unassociated female."

 

Bibliography

Original description from:

              Mabille, Paul 1888. Description de lépidoptères (hespérides) nouveaux. Le Naturaliste (2)2(39): 169-171, 9 figs. (15 July)

p. 170, f. 7

                                      French original                                      English translation
                 Thymele Eudemus,  n. sp.
   Noir  foncé  et légèrement  glacé de bleu d'acier, ailes
supérieures  traversées  par  une  bande  vitrée blanche,
coupée  par  les  nervures  en  trois  taches  étroitement
unies. Inférieures plus métalliques. Dessous concolore;
bord  interne  des supérieures  blanc roussâtre.
   Tête, corselet et corps couverts de poils bleu d'acier,
à reflet  vert.
   Chiriqui. Collect. Staudinger.
                  Thymele Eudemus,  n. sp.
   Black  dark  and  slightly   glossy  steel-blue   fore-
wings     traversed     by     a    glassy    white    band
cut  by  the  veins  in  three  macules  [that  are] close 
together. Hind[wings] more metallic.Venter concolor;
inner edge of the fore[wings] reddish white.
   Head, thorax and body covered with steel-blue hair
with green reflection.
   Chiriqui. Collect. Staudinger.

 



Text from:

Godman, Frederick DuCane, and Osbert Salvin 1893-94. Biologia Centrali-Americana. Insecta. Lepidoptera-Rhopalocera. London, Dulau & Co., Bernard Quaritch. 2: 297-312 (October 1893), pls. 77-78 (January 1894).

p. 310,  pl. 77 f. 24-25

        10.  Telegonus  eudemus.    (Tab. LXXVII. figg. 24, 25  .)
Thymele eudemus, Mab. Le Nat. x. p. 170 (1888) 1.
Alis  fusco-nigris  vix  viridescente  tinctis :  anticis  fascia  transversa  semihyalina  a costa  ad  angulum  analem
    venis  nigris  sexpartita ;  posticis  immaculatis:  subtus  ut supra  paulo  pallidioribus ;  anticis  margine interno
    pallide  fusco.
♀  mari  similis,  anticis  subtus  margine  interno  præcipue  ad angulum  analem  albicantioribus.
   Hab. MEXICO, Atoyac (H. H. Smith); PANAMA, Chiriqui (Trötsch, in mus. Staudinger 1).
   Dr. Staudinger  has  kindly  lent  us  the  type  of  this  species.   A  female  obtained  in
Mexico  by  Mr. Smith  appears  to belong  to the same species,  but the  transverse band
of  the primaries  is rather wider,  becomes indistinct  beyond the subcostal  nervure,  and
near  the  anal  angle  beneath  it  is  surrounded  with  white.   With  only  two  specimens
before us,  and  no dissections,  we cannot form  a definite  opinion  as to  the position of
the species,  which  seems allied  to T. apastus.

 



Text from:

Mabille, Paul, and Eugène Boullet 1912. Essai de révision de la famille des hespérides. Annales des Sciences naturelles (Zoologie) (9)16(1/4): 1-159, 2 pls. (November)

p. 86

                                           French original                                    English translation
                                        T. Eudemus Mab.
    Ailes   noires  ;   les   antérieures    traversées   par   une   bande
oblique  blanc  transparent,   qui  commence  sur  la  côte  et  finit
au-dessus  de l'angle  interne ;  elle  est  très  régulière  et  divisée
par   les   nervures  en  six  taches  inégales :  celle   du  troisième
intervalle  en carré  long et bien plus grande que toutes les autres.
La  base  des  ailes,  le corselet et les premiers anneaux de l'abdo-
men  sont  d'un  vert  sombre.  Les  ailes  inférieures  ont  le  bord
externe  arrondi  et le  lobe  bien  prononcé  et droit.  Le  dessous
des  ailes  est  noir comme le dessus et uniforme.  Aux ailes anté-
rieures   le  bord  interne  est  roux  clair.  Les  franges  sont  brun
noirâtre  et le corps gris  cendré mêlé de poils verts.
    Nous sommes embarrassé pour bien comprendre cette espèce :
peut-être  appartient-elle  au  genre  Thymele  et n'est-elle  qu'une
forme  plus foncée de Passalus d'Herrich Schaeffer, dont la base
des  quatre  ailes  et le  corselet  sont  d'un  vert  brillant. Malheu-
reusement  nous  n'avons vu qu'une femelle de chaque espèce.
                                   T. Eudemus Mab.
     Wings black ;  the forewings  traversed by a band  [that is]
oblique transparent white, which begins at the costa and ends
above     tornus   ;     it     is     very     regular     and     divided
by  the veins into six unequal macules :   the one in the  third
cell    is    oblong     and    much    larger    than    all    others.
The  base of the wings,  thorax and first abdominal segments
are   dark    green.    The   hindwings   have   the   outer   edge
rounded   and   lobes    pronounced   and   straight.  Ventrally
wings   are   black   as  dorsally  and  uniform.  The  forewing
inner    edge    is    light    brown.   The   fringes   are   brown-
black   and   the   body   ash-gray   overscaled    with   green.
    We  are  confused  about  understanding  of  this  species :
perhaps   it   belongs   to   the   genus    Thymele  and  is  it  a
darker  form of   Passalus Herrich-Schaeffer,  whose  bases
of  the four wings and thorax are bright green. Unfortunately
we  have  not  seen  a female  of  each  species.

p. 89

29.   T.  Eudemus   Mab.,   Le  Nat.,   p. 170,  f. 6 [sic!] (1888).

 



Text from:

Draudt, Max Wilhelm Karl 1921-24. B. Grypocera, breitköpfige Tagfalter. In: Seitz, A. (Ed)., Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde. Stuttgart, Alfred Kernen. 5:953-992 (9 July 1923), pls. 160-191.

p. 864

eudemus.
               T. eudemus Mab. is another doubtful species and perhaps only a darker form of Thymele passalus
(p. 866).  Base  of wings and body suffused with  a deep dull green.    Beneath monotonously black, only the
proximal  margin of the forewing lighter, somewhat reddish-brown.   Described according  to a  ♂ from  the
Chiriqui.

 



Text from:

Evans, William Harry 1952. A catalogue of the American Hesperiidae indicating the classification and nomenclature adopted in the British Museum (Natural History). Part II. Pyrginae. Section I. London, British Museum (Natural History). v + 178 pp., pls. 10-25.

p. 156-157; description in a form of identification key: relevant snippets are cited here.

D.7. PORPHYROGENES Watson 1893 :

                                    [...]

Ia (9a).  Large,  ♂ F > 20 mm.

 Ib (6a).  H termen convex, origin of vein 6 nearer to the  
 origin of vein 7 than to the origin of vein 4.

                                    [...]

4a (Ic).  H vein 2 arising well before vein 7. Cell = ½ wing.  

                                    [...]

5 (4). ♂ similar to sororcula. ♀ similar to passalus, but the  
 blue areas duller. ♂ secondary sexual characters as in  
 sororcula, but unf the bared portion of vein I is longer  
 and seems to be doubled, like 2 parallel veins, and the  
 speculum is larger. Below palpi, pectus and legs orange.  

vulpecula. 2 sub-species.

 (a).  Smaller, ♂ F 22 mm., ♀ 25 mm.: ♂ brighter.

Sub-sp. vulpecula Plötz 1882:  ♂ S. America.  Fig Seitz.

 Synonym.  eudemus  Mabille 1888;  ♀ Chiriqui:  figured.

 B.M.  I ♀ Colombia.  I ♂ Venezuela. I ♂ Fr Guiana.  
 I ♂ I ♀ Pará.  I ♂ Up Amazons (Iquitos).  3 ♂ Paraguay.  

Comment: According to Austin & Mielke (2008), Evans incorrectly associated females described as eudemus with males described as vulpecula (South American taxon). Therefore information about females vulpecula in Evans (1952) should refers to eudemus. P. eudemus should be kept as an unassociated female.

Text and lectotype designation from:

Austin, George T., and Olaf Hermann Hendrik Mielke 2008. Hesperiidae of Rondônia, Brazil: Porphyrogenes Watson (Lepidoptera: Pyrginae: Eudamini), with descriptions of new species from Central and South America. Insecta Mundi 0044: 1-56, 165 figs. (26 September 2008)

p. 1

           Porphyrogenes virgatus (Mabille, 1888)  and  Porphyrogenes eudemus (Mabille, 1888),  considered

synonyms of P. zohra and Porphyrogenes vulpecula (Plötz, 1882), respectively, without justification by Evans

(1952), are removed from those synonymies and retained, along with P. passalus, as females without confirmed

affinities.  Lectotypes are here designated for      [...]       Eudamus pausias Hewitson, 1867;

p. 12

                                                                                                                    Evans (1952) considered

the female of  P. vulpecula  to be similar  to that of P. passalus.  That phenotype,  Thymele eudamus [sic!]

Mabille, 1888, was synonymized with P. vulpecula without justification by Evans (1955),  a synonymy

which has persisted to the present (e.g., Mielke 2004, 2005). Thymele eudemus is here removed from

synonymy with P. vulpecula because there are no data relating the two phenotypes.

p. 31-32,  f. 47, 48, 103, 104, 160

Porphyrogenes eudemus (Mabille, 1888)

(Fig. 47, 48, 103, 104, 160)

 

Thymele  eudemus  Mabille,  1888.  Type  locality:  Chiriqui [Panama];  female  type  (herein designated the

      lectotype, Fig. 47, 48)  in MNHU.

 

      Description.  Female  (Fig. 47, 48, 103, 104) - mean forewing length = 25.7 mm  (25.3-26.0 mm,  n =

4;  from  Panama  and  Peru);  forewing  apex  slightly  rounded and produced,  termen slightly  convex,  anal

margin  straight;   hindwing  convex  except  somewhat  concave  before  short  tornal  lobe,  vein  Rs  arising

nearer to end  of discal cell  than to its base  and well distad of origin of CuA2; dorsum dark brown; forewing

overscaled  basad  with dull  blue-green,  continuous  (divided thinly by  dark veins)  narrow white band from

costa  (where divided  into two thin  elongate macules),  through distal  end of discal cell,  base of  M3-CuA1,

mid-CuA1-CuA2,  and   terminating  nearly  at  termen  distad  in  CuA2-2A;  hindwing  overscaled  with  dull

blue-green basad, l argely posterior of discal cell,  more extensive than  on forewing,  extending to  or  nearly

to termen at tornus;  inconspicuous erect  brown (with  green proximad)  tuft  along vein 2A;  fringes  on both

wings gray  to gray-brown.

      Venter  similar to dorsum;  duller,  overscaling less  extensive on  hindwing;  apex of  forewing  conspicu-

ously  tan,  forewing  vein  2A  sinuate, shining tan speculum in posterior 1/2 of the proximal 1/4 of CuA2-2A

and  entire  anal  cell;  hindwing  with  no  indication  of  discal  macules;  cell  2A-3A  with  deep groove just

caudad of vein 2A.

      Dorsal  head  and  thorax  brown  mixed  with  blue-green,  palpi  gray,  eyes  blackish,  antennae  black,

ochreous on venter distad  and beneath club,  nudum red-brown,  27 (n = 2) or 28 (n = 2) segments,  ventral

thorax  as  dorsum,  pectus  grayish  mixed  with  blue-green,  legs ochreous-brown, dorsal abdomen brown,

ventral abdomen  gray-brown to brown.

       Genitalia  (Fig. 160)  -  lamella  postvaginalis sclerotized,  more or less quadrate,  caudal edge  with nar-

row  and  shallow  U-shaped   indentation  centrally;   lamella  antevaginalis  as  rectangular  sclerotized  plate

with central  process pointed  caudad and  largely sclerotized  plates laterad;  ductus bursae  short,  relatively

broad and membranous,  joining corpus bursae on dorsal  surface cephalad  of its caudal end; corpus bursae

bulbous,  relatively small.

       Distribution.  Like  both  P. passalus  and  P. virgatus,  the known distribution of P. eudemus cannot

be  delimited  from  the  literature.  Probable  records  are for Panama, Colombia, and Brazil (Pará) (Mabille

1888,  Evans 1952),  and  potentially Bolivia (Evans 1952, based on the reported female of P. immaculata;

see above  under P. sororcula  for  the correct  identification of   the  female  of  P.  immaculata).  Females

identified during this study as P. eudemus are known from Panama (May, July, December) and Peru.

      Diagnosis  and  discussion.  Porphyrogenes  eudemus  is  here  removed  from  the  synonymy of  P.

vulpecula  pending further knowledge on its relationship to males of described taxa of Porphyrogenes.  The

specimen of  Thymele eudemus  in MNHU (Fig. 47, 48) is here designated the lectotype. It bears five labels

as  follows:  / Origin. /,  / Chiriqui /,  / Th. Eudemus Mab. /,  / Eudemus Mab. /,  and / Eudemus Mab. /.  The

need for  this designation is for  the same reason lectotypes were  designated for the preceding two taxa.

      The  three  foregoing  taxa  have  a  similar  brownish  phenotype  with  a white diagonal band of macules

across the forewing. The only other female of Porphyrogenes known to have a diagonal band is P. omphale

on  which  the band  is orange  (but see following two entries).  Most known  females  of the genus are tawny

or gray  and have one or two (often large) macules on the forewing.  On some (e.g., P. omphale, P. probus,

P.  vulpeculaP.  sororcula,  and several  of the  smaller species),  their  color  and pattern  are  sufficiently

similar  to  that  of males  that they may  be matched  with some degree  of confidence.  Since the  genitalia of

two of  the banded  phenotypes (P. passalus, P. virgatus)  have yet to be examined, nothing can be offered

with  respect to their  interrelationships.

p. 32-33

Porphyrogenes unassociated unnamed female #1
[...]

       Diagnosis  and  discussion.  This  phenotype,  with  its  dark color  and diagonal  white band on the

forewing,  is generally similar  to the three preceding species.  The termen  of the forewing is not as strongly

convex  as that  of P. passalus, but not nearly straight as on P. virgatus and P. eudemus. The apex of the

forewing  is  not  highly  angular as  on  P. virgatus.  Vein 2A  on the forewing is slightly sinuate and not as

strongly as on P. passalus or strongly bowed as on P. virgatus. The white band is much narrower than on

P. passalus  and  P. eudemus, but not quite as narrow as on P. virgatus. The tornal lobe on the hindwing

is  barely  perceptible  in contrast  with  the more  prominent  lobe on  P. virgatus  and  P. eudemus.  The

genitalia  of this  female differ  notably from that  of the female considered here to be P. eudemus.

p. 35

                                                                                                        there are  now five (also including P.

virgatus and P. eudemus) unplaced female phenotypes of Porphyrogenes known from Central America.

Males known from Central America without associated females include P. zohraP. sula, P. spoda, and

P. spina. Undoubtedly, females for at least some  of these are among the pool of  females detailed above.

References:

Mabille, Paul 1888. Description de lépidoptères (hespérides) nouveaux. Le Naturaliste (2)2(39): 169-171, 9 figs. (15 July). p. 170, f. 7

Godman, Frederick DuCane, and Osbert Salvin 1893-94. Biologia Centrali-Americana. Insecta. Lepidoptera-Rhopalocera. London, Dulau & Co., Bernard Quaritch. 2: 297-312 (October 1893), pls. 77-78 (January 1894). p. 310,  pl. 77 f. 24-25

Mabille, Paul, and Eugène Boullet 1912. Essai de révision de la famille des hespérides. Annales des Sciences naturelles (Zoologie) (9)16(1/4): 1-159, 2 pls. (November). p. 86

Draudt, Max Wilhelm Karl 1921-24. B. Grypocera, breitköpfige Tagfalter. In: Seitz, A. (Ed)., Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde. Stuttgart, Alfred Kernen. 5:953-992 (9 July 1923), pls. 160-191. p. 864

Evans, William Harry 1952. A catalogue of the American Hesperiidae indicating the classification and nomenclature adopted in the British Museum (Natural History). Part II. Pyrginae. Section I. London, British Museum (Natural History). v + 178 pp., pls. 10-25. p. 156-157

Austin, George T., and Olaf Hermann Hendrik Mielke 2008. Hesperiidae of Rondônia, Brazil: Porphyrogenes Watson (Lepidoptera: Pyrginae: Eudamini), with descriptions of new species from Central and South America. Insecta Mundi 0044: 1-56, 165 figs. (26 September 2008). p. 7-8, f. 7, 8, 57-60, 119, 137, 154

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