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Porphyrogenes sula (Williams & Bell, 1940)
(Sula Scarlet-eye)

Type Specimens photo collection:


 

Pinned Specimens photo collection:

Immatures photo collection:

Genitalia photo collection:

Distribution and Larval Foodplants:

Honduras, Costa Rica

Diagnosis

Tufts at the base of dorsal hindwing are dark, blackish; hindwing termen is almost straight; tornal lobe is short, not strongly produced; harpe  recurved, terminally with short teeth; saccus very short, shorter than uncus.
 

Synonymy

 

Porphyrogenes sula (Williams & E. Bell, 1940)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 66(2): 121, fig. 1 ♂ genitalia.

Original Combination: Ocyba sula

Type Locality: “San Pedro Sula, Honduras“

Types: Holotype originally in ANSP, transferred to CMNH; figured by Austin and Mielke 2008, Insecta Mundi 0044: 7, figs. 31 ♂ D, 32 ♂ V.

 

Bibliography

Original description from:

Williams, Roswell Carter, Jr., and Ernest Layton Bell 1940. New Neotropical Hesperiidae and notes on others (Lepidoptera). Transactions of the american entomological Society 66: 121-140, 19 figs. (23 May).

p. 121-122, f. 1

Ocyba sula  new  species                                                         (Fig. I.)

This species differs from calanus Godman and Salvin and cala-  
thana Hewitson in having the outer margin of the secondaries  
much straighter and the anal angle more pointed, in the primaries  
being less truncate at the apex, in the total absence of the dark  
bands of the primaries and only a very hazy suggestion of one  
on the secondaries, in having brown instead of fulvous fringes  
and no fulvous area on the outer margin of the secondaries.

Male. Upper side. Primaries dark coppery brown shading to dark  
fulvous at the base. Fringes blackish brown. Costal fold present. Second-  
aries same color as primaries, basal two-thirds covered with dark fulvous  
hairs. From vein 8 to costal margin glabrous, a short very heavy, dark  
brown hair tuft from near the base of vein 7 stands out with great dis-  
tinctness. Dense, long brown hairs along the abdominal fold. A very hazy  
indication of a darker discal band. Fringes blackish brown.

Beneath dark coppery brown. Primaries with the apex slightly paler and  
a few bluish green hairs in the base of the cell. A large glabrous area  
occupies nearly all of the inner margin below vein 1 and a little more  
than the basal half of interspace 1. Vein 1 is greatly curved upward in  
the basal third and at the top of this curve is swollen and scaleless.  
Secondaries same color as primaries, with some bluish green hairs at the  
base of the cell. Fringes dark brown.

Top of palpi and head brown with greenish hairs, collar and shoulder  
covers brown, thorax with long bright fulvous hairs at the base, tegulae  
bright fulvous, abdomen fulvous. Beneath palpi brown, pectus greenish  
brown, thorax and abdomen with brown and bluish green hairs. Legs  
coppery brown. Antennae black above, beneath the basal half lightly  
spotted with brown, from there to the club brown, the club black, the  
apiculus brown.

Expanse: 43 mm.

Type material.—Holotype, male; San Pedro Sula, Honduras;  
[collection of Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia].

The form of the genitalia is similar to that of calanus but  
differs in detail. The uncus terminates in two arms, slightly  
curved and pointed at the apex and there is a tuft of long black-  
hair spines from the dorsal side. The scaphium is small. The  
claspers curve upward toward the apex, which is hooked back  
ward and with numerous serrations. The aedoeagus is very stout  
and carries a few large and some small internal spines.

Text from:

Evans, William Harry 1952. A catalogue of the American Hesperiidae indicating the classification and nomenclature adopted in the British Museum (Natural History). Part II. Pyrginae. Section I. London, British Museum (Natural History). v + 178 pp., pls. 10-25.

p. 157; description in a form of identification key: relevant snippets are cited here.

D.7. PORPHYROGENES Watson 1893 :

                                    [...]

Ia (9a).  Large,  ♂ F > 20 mm.

                                    [...]

6a (Ib).  H termen straight, origin of vein 6 mid origins of  
 veins 7 and 4.

                                    [...]

7a (6).  H vein 7 mid base and end of cell, arising well  
 before vein 2.  ♂ F 26 mm.

 7 (8). ♂ secondary sexual characters as in sororcula. Above  
 tawny brown, no black spots. ♀ brown, hyaline band as  
 in vulpecula, but no blue colouring: below palpi and  
 pectus brown.

zohra.  2 sub-species.

 (a).  Bright uniform tawny brown, above: below choco-  
 late; apex unf may be tipped pale brown.  ♀ unh purple  
 brown.

Sub-sp. zohra Möschler 1878: ♂ Venezuela.  Fig Seitz.

 Synonyms.  virgatus Mabille 1888: ♀ Pebas: figured.

 sula Williams & Bell 1940: ♂ Honduras: genitalia figured.  

 B.M.  I ♀ Honduras.  I ♀ Br Guiana.  2 ♂ Fr Guiana.  
 2 ♂ Pará.

Comment: According to Austin & Mielke (2008), Evans incorrectly synonymized sula with zohra. Therefore P. sula should be kept as a valid species.

Text from:

Austin, George T., and Olaf Hermann Hendrik Mielke 2008. Hesperiidae of Rondônia, Brazil: Porphyrogenes Watson (Lepidoptera: Pyrginae: Eudamini), with descriptions of new species from Central and South America. Insecta Mundi 0044: 1-56, 165 figs. (26 September 2008)

p. 1

                               [...]                               Porphyrogenes sula Williams and Bell, 1940, reinstated status, is  
raised from synonymy with Porphyrogenes zohra (Möschler, 1879) to species-level.

p. 18, f. 31, 32

Porphyrogenes sula (Williams and Bell), 1940, reinstated status

(Fig. 31, 32)

Ocyba sula Williams and Bell, 1940. Type locality: San Pedro Sula, Honduras; male holotype (Fig. 31,  
 32), originally in ANSP, transferred to CMNH.

Description. Male (measured and described from photographs of holotype, Fig. 31, 32) - forewing  
length = 22.5 mm; forewing with costal fold, apex slightly produced, pointed, termen slightly convex with  
short lobe at tornus, and anal margin slightly convex; hindwing termen nearly straight, tornus produced  
to short lobe, vein Rs arising nearer end of discal cell than to its base and well distad of CuA2; dorsum  
brown, unmarked; forewing overscaled with bright red-brown, heaviest basad, anal margin with sparse  
tuft proximad; hindwing overscaled with bright red-brown posterior to vein Rs, heaviest basad and caudad,  
no indication of discal macules; shining proximal gray specular area cephalad including proximal 1/2 of  
costal cell; short blackish tufts; conspicuous erect red-brown tuft along anterior edge of vein 2A, recum-  
bent gray-tan tuft from posterior edge of 2A; fringes on both wings red-brown becoming brown cephalad  
on forewing.

Venter very dark brown, hindwing entirely overscaled with red-brown; forewing vein 2A moderately  
sinuate, bare and slightly swollen in 2nd 1/4 from base, no distinct groove; shining gray speculum in  
proximal 1/2 of CuA2-2A and in proximal 1/2 of anal cell (continued to tornus as modified brown scales);  
hindwing with no indication of discal macules; cell 2A-3A with deep paler red-brown groove just caudad of  
vein 2A.

Dorsal head and thorax blackish with many greenish scales, palpi gray, eyes appear dark, antennae  
black on dorsum, whitish on venter at least on shaft, ventral thorax and pectus greenish, legs brown  
proximad, orange-brown distad, dorsal abdomen rubbed, ventral abdomen blackish with greenish scales.

Genitalia - not examined, illustrated with original description (Williams and Bell 1940, see below).

Female - unknown.

Distribution. This species is definitely known only from the holotype from Honduras (Williams and  
Bell 1940). A male reared from Costa Rica (see photographs of ‘Porphyrogenes Burns02’ in Janzen and  
Hallwachs 2008) may also be this species. A female specimen attributed to Porphyrogenes zohra at the  
BM(NH) from Honduras (Evans 1952) requires closer scrutiny to determine if it is that species or P. sula.

Diagnosis and discussion. Ocyba sula was apparently named from a single male and that speci-  
men (Fig. 31, 32), formerly in ANSP and now in CMNH, is the holotype. Evans (1952), without justifica-  
tion and apparently based on a perceived similarity of male genitalia, synonymized Ocyba sula with  
Porphyrogenes zohra zohra. This synonymy has been carried through to the present (e.g., Mielke 2004,  
2005). The differences between the taxa, however, are abundant. In the genitalia, P. zohra has a more  
elongate harpe that is not recurved, a longer saccus, a proportionally larger gnathos, and an aedeagus  
that is stouter cephalad. The wings of P. zohra also exhibit differences from P. sula in having tan tufts,  
an even straighter termen of the hindwing, a more extensive swollen area on vein 2A on the ventral  
forewing, the dorsal overscaling is more orange (less reddish), and the venter is paler. Porphyrogenes  
sula seems most similar to an unnamed species from Panama (see below).

p. 29

                                                 [...]                                                 The valva of P. sula as illustrated by  
Williams and Bell (1940) is somewhat quadrate as on P. speciosus and the harpe appears similarly  
expanded near its bend. Porphyrogenes sula, however, is smaller, has different venation and wing shape,  
and has blackish tufts anteriorly on the dorsal hindwing;

Text from:

Burns, John McLauren, Daniel H. Janzen, and Winifred Hallwachs 2010. Of many similar species in the Neotropical genus Porphyrogenes (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae), a new one, repeatedly reared in Costa Rica, is relatively distinct. Proceedings of the entomological Society of Washington 112(1): 32-42, 20 figs., 1 tab.

p. 41-42

      Caterpillars   of  P.  spina   Austin   and
Mielke   (described  from  two  adult  males
from  Panama)  have  been  found  twice  in
ACG   rain   forest:   once   feeding   on  M.
seemannii,   the   favored   foodplant  of  P.
peterwegei,    within   a    few    meters    of
caterpillars   of   that   species;  once  on  M.
cobanense  Donn.  Sm.  (see  images  of  P.
spina  in  Janzen  and  Hallwachs  2009).

Comment: This report rather refers to P. sula, not P. spina, unless the two are synonymous.

References:

Williams, Roswell Carter, Jr., and Ernest Layton Bell 1940. New Neotropical Hesperiidae and notes on others (Lepidoptera). Transactions of the american entomological Society 66: 121-140, 19 figs. (23 May). p. 121-122, f. 1

Evans, William Harry 1952. A catalogue of the American Hesperiidae indicating the classification and nomenclature adopted in the British Museum (Natural History). Part II. Pyrginae. Section I. London, British Museum (Natural History). v + 178 pp., pls. 10-25. p. 157

Austin, George T., and Olaf Hermann Hendrik Mielke 2008. Hesperiidae of Rondônia, Brazil: Porphyrogenes Watson (Lepidoptera: Pyrginae: Eudamini), with descriptions of new species from Central and South America. Insecta Mundi 0044: 1-56, 165 figs. (26 September 2008). p. 18, f. 31, 32

Burns, John McLauren, Daniel H. Janzen, and Winifred Hallwachs 2010. Of many similar species in the Neotropical genus Porphyrogenes (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae), a new one, repeatedly reared in Costa Rica, is relatively distinct. Proceedings of the entomological Society of Washington 112(1): 32-42, 20 figs., 1 tab. p. 41-42

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