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Porphyrogenes zohra (Möschler, 1879)
(Zohra Scarlet-eye)

Type Specimens
photo collection:


 

Pinned Specimens
photo collection:


 

Genitalia
photo collection:

Distribution and Larval Foodplants:

Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Venezuela, Guianas, N Brazil (Para)

Diagnosis

Possesses thin and curved harpe, widely spaced uncus arms, orange-brown rather light dorsum and tan (not gray or brown) tufts at the base of dorsal hindwing.

Synonymy

 

 

Porphyrogenes zohra (Möschler, 1879)

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 28(1): 205.

Original Combination: Telegonus Zohra

Type Locality: “Venezuela“

Types: Holotype in MNHU; figured by Austin and Mielke 2008, Insecta Mundi 0044: 7, figs. 29 ♂ D, 30 ♂ V.

 

Bibliography

Original description from:

Möschler, Heinrich Benno 1879. Neue exotische Hesperiidae. Verhandlungen der kaiserlich-königlichen zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 28(1): 203-230 ("1878", [17 April] 1879).

p. 205

German original
                                   4. Telegonus  Zohra  n.  sp. 
           Gehört  in  die Verwandtschaft  von Pausias  Hew.  und Vulpecula  Hpf.  in
litt.  (Mus.  Berol.)  ist aber  von Beiden durch viel  spitzere Vorderflügel  und von
Pausias  auch  durch  viel  bedeutendere  Grösse  verschieden.
           Saum aller Flügel ziemlich stark ausgeschwungen, Hinterflügel mit spitzem
Afterwinkel.   Oberseite einfach lohbraun,   die Wurzelhälfte der Vorderflügel,  der
Hinterflügel  bis  gegen  den Saum  lebhaft ockergelb (Goldocker) behaart. Fransen
einfarbig  graubraun.
           Unterseite  einfarbig  schmutzig  lohbraun.
           Körper  den   Flügeln   gleich  gefärbt,   oben  goldockergelb  behaart,  unten
dunkelbraun,   Palpen   graubraun,   unter   den   Augen   schmale   weissgraue  Be-
schuppung.  Fühler  braungelb  und  schwarz  geringelt,   die  Kolbe  ockergelb,  an
der  Wurzel  breit  schwarz  geringt,  mit  schwarzer  Spitze.
           Beine   ockergelb,   Schenkel   und  Schienen   braun   behaart,   Tarsen  breit
bräunlich  gefleckt.  49 · 19  Mm.
           Ein  ♂  von  Venezuela.
English translation
                                   4. Telegonus  Zohra  n.  sp. 
           Thought  [of]  in   the  Kinship   to  Pausias  Hew.  and  Vulpecula  Hpf.  in
litt. (Mus. Berol.) but differs from two by much more pointed Forewings and from
Pausias  also  by  much  greater  size.
           Edge   [of]   all   wings   quite   strongly  curved,   Hindwings   with  pointed
Anal  angle.  Dorsal  side  simply  tawny,  the  Basal  half  [of]  the  Forewings,  the
Hindwings up  against  the  Edge  vivid  yellow-ochre  (Gold  ochre)  hairy. Fringes
monochrome  gray-brown.
           Underside  plain  dirty  tawny.
           Body [to] the Wings similar colored,  above gold-ochre-yellow hairy, below
dark    brown,    Palpi    gray-brown,    under    the   Eyes    narrow    whitish   squa- 
mation.   Antenna   yellow-brown   and  black  striped,   the  Club  yellow-ochre,  at
the  Base  broadly  back  ringed,  with  black  tip.
           Legs    yellow-ochre,     Femora   and   Tibiae   brown    hairy,    Tarsi   broad
brownish   mottled.   49 · 19 mm.
           One   ♂   from  Venezuela.

Text from:

Evans, William Harry 1952. A catalogue of the American Hesperiidae indicating the classification and nomenclature adopted in the British Museum (Natural History). Part II. Pyrginae. Section I. London, British Museum (Natural History). v + 178 pp., pls. 10-25.

species D.7.7, p. 157-158, pl. 24 f. 7; description in a form of identification key: relevant snippets are cited here.

D.7. PORPHYROGENES Watson 1893 :

                                    [...]

Ia (9a).  Large,  ♂ F > 20 mm.

                                    [...]

6a (Ib).  H termen straight, origin of vein 6 mid origins of  
 veins 7 and 4.

                                    [...]

7a (6).  H vein 7 mid base and end of cell, arising well  
 before vein 2.  ♂ F 26 mm.

 7 (8). ♂ secondary sexual characters as in sororcula. Above  
 tawny brown, no black spots. ♀ brown, hyaline band as  
 in vulpecula, but no blue colouring: below palpi and  
 pectus brown.

zohra.  2 sub-species.

 (a).  Bright uniform tawny brown, above: below choco-  
 late; apex unf may be tipped pale brown.  ♀ unh purple  
 brown.

Sub-sp. zohra Möschler 1878: ♂ Venezuela.  Fig Seitz.

 Synonyms.  virgatus Mabille 1888: ♀ Pebas: figured.

 sula Williams & Bell 1940: ♂ Honduras: genitalia figured.  

 B.M.  I ♀ Honduras.  I ♀ Br Guiana.  2 ♂ Fr Guiana.  
 2 ♂ Pará.

 (b).  ♂ above, outwardly broadly darker:  unh purple  
 brown.  ♀ below, pale purple brown, apex F broadly  
 darker: unh post-discal area broadly paler.

Sub-sp. stresa nov: ♂ Tarapote, Peru: type B.M.

 B.M.  2 ♂ I ♀ Peru (Tarapote).  3 ♂ Bolivia. (Rio. Songo  
 Buenavista).

Comment: According to Austin & Mielke (2008), Evans unjustifiably associated females described as virgatus with a male described as zohra, and incorrectly synonymized sula with zohra. Therefore information about females zohra in Evans (1952) refers to virgatus. P. virgatus should be kept as an unassociated female, and P. sula as a valid species.

Text from:

Austin, George T., and Olaf Hermann Hendrik Mielke 2008. Hesperiidae of Rondônia, Brazil: Porphyrogenes Watson (Lepidoptera: Pyrginae: Eudamini), with descriptions of new species from Central and South America. Insecta Mundi 0044: 1-56, 165 figs. (26 September 2008)

p. 17, f. 29, 30, 81, 82, 124, 143

Porphyrogenes zohra (Möschler, 1879)

(Fig. 29, 30, 81, 82, 124, 143)

Telegonus zohra Möschler, 1879. Type locality: Venezuela; male [holo]type (Fig. 29, 30) in MNHU.  
Description. Male (Fig. 29, 30, 81, 82) - mean forewing length = 24.3 mm (24.2-24.6 mm, n = 3;  
from Honduras, Nicaragua, and Venezuela); forewing with costal fold, apex pointed, not produced, termen  
and anal margin slightly convex; hindwing termen nearly straight, tornus produced to short lobe, vein Rs  
arising mid-base and end of discal cell and basad of CuA2 (Fig. 124); dorsum brown, unmarked; forewing  
overscaled with orange-brown, heaviest basad, anal margin with sparse tuft proximad; hindwing overscaled  
with orange-brown posterior to vein Rs, no indication of discal macules; shining gray speculum in base of  
anterior discal cell, proximal 1/4 of Sc+R1-Rs, and proximal 1/3 of costal cell; moderate length tan recum-  
bent tuft near base of Sc+R1-Rs, semierect tan tuft arising from near base of discal cell covering speculum  
in discal cell and, with anterior tuft, covering base of speculum in Sc+R1-Rs (Fig. 124); conspicuous erect  
orange-brown tuft along anterior edge of vein 2A, recumbent gray-tan tuft from posterior edge of 2A;  
fringes on both wings brown.

Venter orange-brown; forewing vein 2A moderately sinuate, bare and moderately swollen in central  
1/3, no distinct groove (Fig. 124); shining gray-brown speculum in proximal 1/4 of CuA2-2A (continued to  
end of bared portion of vein as modified red-brown scales) and in proximal 1/2 of anal cell (continued to  
tornus as modified red-brown scales); hindwing with no indication of discal macules; cell 2A-3A with deep  
groove just caudad of vein 2A.

Dorsal head and thorax orange-brown, palpi tawny, eyes red, antennae black on dorsum, yellow on  
venter and beneath apiculus, nudum red-brown, 27 (n = 1) or 29 (n = 1) segments, ventral thorax orange-  
brown, pectus tawny, legs orange-brown proximad, orange distad, dorsal abdomen brown, overscaled  
with orange-brown, ventral abdomen warm brown.

Genitalia (Fig. 143) - tegumen narrow in lateral view, broad and nearly quadrate in dorsal view, long  
and thin dorso-caudal oriented process from each side of caudal end, tuft double and dense; uncus short,  
slightly decurved in lateral view, divided in dorsal view, arms widely spaced and short, ventral process of  
uncus as rounded lobe; gnathos shorter than uncus, terminal ends rounded in ventral view; combined  
ventral arms from tegumen and dorsal arms from saccus nearly straight; saccus narrow, long, oriented  
dorso-cephalad; valva with costa-ampulla triangular with narrow flap at apex, harpe very long, narrow  
becoming slightly broader caudad, curving upward rather abruptly to blunt (somewhat club-shaped in  
caudal view) and serrated caudal end oriented nearly dorsad; aedeagus much shorter than valva, broad  
with blunt and flaring caudal end; cornuti as double row of slightly curved, robust, and moderately long  
spikes.

Female - unknown.

Distribution and phenology. This species has been reported from Honduras and northern South  
America (Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, northern Brazil [Pará]) (Möschler 1879, Draudt  
1922, Williams and Bell 1940, Bell 1946, Evans 1952, de Jong 1983). Three males were examined during  
this study: HONDURAS: La Ceiba, 19 June 1981 (GTA #8903), NICARAGUA: Zelaya Dept., Bluefields, 9  
Dec. 1975 (GTA #13918), and VENEZUELA: Barinas, Rio Caparo Res. Station, 32 km E El Canton, 3-5  
Feb. 1978, seasonal forest at blacklight (J. M. Burns no. X-1673).

Diagnosis and discussion. Porphyrogenes zohra is most similar to P. stresa, but is overall more  
brightly colored, vein 2A is more sinuate and swollen, and there are differences in the genitalia as noted  
above under P. stresa. Draudt’s (1922) depiction indicated a specimen with a small yellow macule on the  
forewing. The male type in MNHU (Fig. 29, 30) is the [holo]type of Telegonus zohra.

Evans (1952) and subsequent students (e.g., Mielke 2004, 2005) have, without justification, consid-  
ered Thymele virgatus Mabille, 1888 as the female of and synonymous with P. zohra. Thymele virgatus,  
another taxon (see above under P. omphale) without a clearly associated male, is here removed from that  
synonymy since there is yet nothing to indicate its relationship with P. zohra.

p. 18

                    [...]                   A female specimen attributed to Porphyrogenes zohra at the  
BM(NH) from Honduras (Evans 1952) requires closer scrutiny to determine if it is that species or P. sula.
                                                           [...]                                       Evans (1952), without justifica-  
tion and apparently based on a perceived similarity of male genitalia, synonymized Ocyba sula with  
Porphyrogenes zohra zohra. This synonymy has been carried through to the present (e.g., Mielke 2004,  
2005). The differences between the taxa, however, are abundant. In the genitalia, P. zohra has a more  
elongate harpe that is not recurved, a longer saccus, a proportionally larger gnathos, and an aedeagus  
that is stouter cephalad. The wings of P. zohra also exhibit differences from P. sula in having tan tufts,  
an even straighter termen of the hindwing, a more extensive swollen area on vein 2A on the ventral  
forewing, the dorsal overscaling is more orange (less reddish), and the venter is paler.

p. 31

               [...]               Thymele virgatus is another taxon described from a female without a  
clearly associated male. Evans (1952) and subsequent students (e.g., Mielke 2004, 2005) have, without  
justification, considered it as the female of and synonymous with Porphyrogenes zohra. Porphyrogenes  
virgatus is here removed from that synonymy until its affinities are clarified.

Text from:

Burns, John McLauren, Daniel H. Janzen, and Winifred Hallwachs 2010. Of many similar species in the Neotropical genus Porphyrogenes (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae), a new one, repeatedly reared in Costa Rica, is relatively distinct. Proceedings of the entomological Society of Washington 112(1): 32-42, 20 figs., 1 tab.

p. 42

         [...]       Austin   and   Mielke   (2008) 
                             [...]
   [...]    records    of    P.    zohra    (Mösch-
ler)  include   Honduras,   Nicaragua,   and
Venezuela.   The   occurrence  of  this  last
taxon  in Costa  Rica  is no  longer implied
but  real,  thanks  to  three  males  in INBio
(J.   M.   Burns   genitalia   dissections   X-
5032,   X-5240,   and   X-6354).

References:

Möschler, Heinrich Benno 1879. Neue exotische Hesperiidae. Verhandlungen der kaiserlich-königlichen zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 28(1): 203-230 ("1878", [17 April] 1879). p. 205

Evans, William Harry 1952. A catalogue of the American Hesperiidae indicating the classification and nomenclature adopted in the British Museum (Natural History). Part II. Pyrginae. Section I. London, British Museum (Natural History). v + 178 pp., pls. 10-25. species D.7.7, p. 157-158, pl. 24 f. 7

Austin, George T., and Olaf Hermann Hendrik Mielke 2008. Hesperiidae of Rondônia, Brazil: Porphyrogenes Watson (Lepidoptera: Pyrginae: Eudamini), with descriptions of new species from Central and South America. Insecta Mundi 0044: 1-56, 165 figs. (26 September 2008). p. 17, f. 29, 30, 81, 82, 124, 143

Burns, John McLauren, Daniel H. Janzen, and Winifred Hallwachs 2010. Of many similar species in the Neotropical genus Porphyrogenes (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae), a new one, repeatedly reared in Costa Rica, is relatively distinct. Proceedings of the entomological Society of Washington 112(1): 32-42, 20 figs., 1 tab. p. 42

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