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Vanessa virginiensis (Drury, 1773)
(American Lady)

Pinned Specimens
photo collection:

Aberrations
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Live Adults photo collection
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Live Adults photo collection
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Live Adults photo collection
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Immatures
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Larval Foodplants and Habitats photo collection:

Distribution and Larval Foodplants:
 

N Bahamas, Gr. Antilles, Hawaii, Canary Is.; N. Am. to Colombia

Synonymy

(From: A Catalogue of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada, Jonathan P. Pelham)

  Genus Vanessa [Fabricius], 1807

In: Illiger, Mag. f. Insektenk. 6: 281, no. 12. Type-species: Papilio atalanta Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 478, no. 119, by designation of Latreille (1810), Consid. gén Anim. Crust. Arach. Ins.: 440, 354. I.C.Z.N. Opinion 156 placed Vanessa on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology as name no. 601. This name was spelled “Phanessa” by Sodoffsky (1837), Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou 10(6): 80, no. 4; an unjustified emendation.

      =    ‡Nymphalis Latreille, 1804

Nouv. Dict. Hist. Nat. 24(tab): 184, no. 468, 199. Type species: Papilio atalanta Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 478, no. 119, by monotypy. Preoccupied by Nymphalis Kluk, 1780, Zwierz. Hist. Nat. Pocz. Gospod. 4: 86. Wagener (1995), in: Hesselbarth et al., Tagf. Türk (2): 1008, claimed that the species Papilio morio Retzius, 1783, Gen. Spec. Ins.: 31, no. 9, the other of the two species included in the genus by Latreille, was indeed validly described. This name is a homonym and need not be considered further.

=    Cynthia [Fabricius], 1807

In: Illiger, Mag. f. Insektenk. 6: 281, no. 11. Type-species: Papilio cardui Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 475, no. 107, by designation of Westwood (1840), Intro. Class. Ins. 2: 87. I.C.Z.N. Direction 4 placed Cynthia on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology as name no. 805. I.C.Z.N. Opinion 156 gave Vanessa precedence over Cynthia. The validity of this name as a genus-level taxon is questionable, as demonstrated by occasional hybridization between taxa placed by W. D. Field (1971), Smithsonian Contrib. Zool. (84):1-105, in Vanessa and Cynthia (e.g., Dimock (1973), J. Lepid. Soc. 27(4): 278).

      =    ‡Pyrameis Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (3): 33. Type-species: Papilio atalanta Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 478, no. 119, by designation of Scudder (1875), Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., Boston 10(2): 260, no. 924. A junior objective synonym of Vanessa.

      =    ‡Ammiralis Rennie, 1832

Conspectus Butts. Moths: 10. Type-species: Papilio atalanta Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 478, no. 119, by monotypy. A junior objective synonym of Vanessa.

      =    ‡Neopyrameis Scudder, 1889

Butts. E. U. S. & Can. 1(3): 434. Type-species: Papilio cardui Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 475, no. 107, by monotypy. A junior objective synonym of Cynthia.

=    Fieldia Niculescu, 1979

Revue vérviét. Hist. Nat. 36(1-3): 3. Type-species: Hamadryas carye Hübner, [1812] (as Vanessa carye), Samml. exot. Schmett. 1: pl. [45], figs. 1, 2, by original designation.

 

Vanessa virginiensis (Drury, 1773)

Illustr. Nat. Hist. 1: 10-11, pl. 5, fig. 1 ♂ D, 1a ♂ V (1770); 2: index (1773, name given).

Original Combination: Papilio Cardui Virginiensis

Type Locality: “New York, Maryland, and Virginia”; defined as “Virginia” on the basis of its name by W. D. Field (1971), Smithsonian Contrib. Zool. (84): 49.

Types: Syntypes possibly in MAMU or lost.

            =    huntera (Fabricius, 1775)

Syst. Entomol.: 499, no. 240.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. N[ymphalis]. G[emmata]. Huntera

Type Locality: “Americae balsamita”

Types: Type(s) apparently lost.

            =    iole (Cramer, 1775)

Uitl. Kapellen 1(1): 17-18, pl. 12, figs. E ♂ D, F ♂ V (as iole); (8): 153 (index, as jole); cited Papilio cardui virginiensis Drury (1773), Illustr. Nat. Hist. 1: pl. 5, fig. 1, 1a.

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Nymph[alis]. Gemmat[a]. Iole

Type Locality: “Noord-America, te nieuw-Jork, Virginiën, Maryland en Jamaica” “l’Amerique septentrionale, à la Nouvelle York, à la Jamaïque”

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

            =    fulvia (Dodge, 1900)

Can. Entomol. 32(3): 92.

Original Combination: Pyrameis huntera var. fulvia

Type Locality: Not stated; holotype from “Louisiana, Pike County, Missouri.”

Types: Location of holotype not known; figured by J. A. Comstock (1927), Butts. Calif.: pl. 42, fig. 9 ♂ D, from “Louisiana, Mo.”

                   =    ‡gnaphalii (Fabricius, 1938)

In: Bryk, Syst. Glossat.: 102, no. 63; cited Papilio cardui virginiensis Drury (1773), Illustr. Nat. Hist. 1: pl. 5, fig. 1, 1a, Cramer (1775), Uitl. Kapellen 1(1): pl. 12, figs. E, F, pl. 5, fig. 1, and J. E. Smith (1797), in: Smith & Abbot, Ins. Georgia 1: pl. 9.

Original Combination: C[ynthia]. Gnaphalii

Proposed as a replacement name for Papilio cardui virginiensis, based on a larval foodplant illustrated by Smith and Abbot; a junior objective synonym of virginiensis.

                   =    ‡”ahwashtee” C. Fox, 1921

Psyche 28(2): 45-46, pl. 2, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Vanessa virginiensis var. ahwashtee

Type Locality: “Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, California” [San Francisco County]

Types: “Holotype” in CAS; figured by Gunder (1927), Entomol. News 38(9): pl. 8, middle row, fig. 3 ♂ V.

The text clearly indicates that this taxon was described as an individual variant.

                   =    ‡”massachusettensis” Gunder, 1925

Entomol. News 36(7): 198, no. 10, pl. 5, fig. 10 ♂ D (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Vanessa virginiensis ab. ♂ massachusettensis

Type Locality: “Southampton, Massachusetts” [Hampshire County]

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH; figured in J. A. Comstock (1927), Butts. Calif.: pl. 43, fig. 5 ♂ D.

                   =    ‡”simmsi” (Gunder, 1927)

Entomol. News 38(5): 133-134, no. 2, pl. 2, fig. 2 ♀ D (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Cynthia virginiensis simmsi ♀ nov. tr. form

Type Locality: “Montreal, Canada” [Quebec]

Types: “Holotype” in BMNH; also figured by Gunder (1927), Entomol. News 38(9): pl. 8, upper half, fig. 4 ♀ V.

Bibliography

 

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